or Chang Tsaiborn 1020, Chang'an, Chinadied 1077, ChinaRealist philosopher of the Song dynasty.The son of a magistrate, he studied Buddhism and Daoism before being inspired by the Confucian classics. In his Cheng-meng, he declared the universe a unity with myriad aspects and all existence an eternal integration and disintegration. Ren (humaneness) is the basic virtue, and morality consists in doing one's duty as a member of society and of the universe.
* * *▪ Chinese philosopherWade-Giles romanization Chang Tsaiborn 1020, Changan, Chinadied 1077, Chinarealist philosopher of the Song dynasty, a leader in giving neo-Confucianism a metaphysical and epistemological foundation.The son of a magistrate, Zhang studied Buddhism and Daoism but found his true inspiration in the Confucian Classics. In his chief work, Zhengmeng (“Correcting Youthful Ignorance”), he declared that the world is a unity, with myriad aspects, and all existence is a process of arising and dissolving. qi (“vital energies”) is identified with the Great Ultimate (taiji), the ultimate reality. When qi is influenced by yang forces, it floats and rises, dispersing its vapours. When the yin forces are prevalent, qi sinks and falls, thus condensing and forming the concrete things of the material world.In the realm of ethics, the one basic virtue is ren (jen) (“humaneness”), but in its various manifestations (i.e., in various human relations) ren becomes many things: filial piety toward parents or respect for an elder brother. Human beings are qi, like all other aspects of the world, and have an original nature that is one with all the things of the world. Their physical nature, however, derives from the physical form into which their qi has been dispersed. Moral self-cultivation consists in a person's attempting to do his duty as a member of society and as a member of the cosmos. One does not try to prolong or extend one's life. The exemplary person understands that “life entails no gain nor death any loss.”Zhang influenced some of the most eminent later neo-Confucian thinkers; the brothers Cheng Hao (1032–85) and Cheng Yi (1033–1107) were his pupils. His theory of mind was adopted by the great philosopher Zhu Xi (1130–1200), and Wang Fuzhi (Wang Fu-chih) (1619–92) developed Zhang's philosophy into a system that has recently come to be recognized as one of the major achievements of Chinese thought.
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Zhang Zai — (simplified Chinese: 张载; traditional Chinese: 張載; pinyin: Zhāng Zǎi; Wade–Giles: Chang Tsai) (1020–1077) was a Chinese Neo Confucian moral philosopher and cosmologist … Wikipedia
Zhang Zai — (sinogrammes simplifiés : 张载 ; sinogrammes traditionnels : 張載 ; pinyin : Zhāng Zǎi ; Wade–Giles : Chang Tsai) né en 1020 et mort en 1077, est un cosmologiste chinois qui contribue au développement de la… … Wikipédia en Français
ZHANG ZAI — [TCHANG TSAI] (1020 1077) Philosophe néo confucéen, Zhang Zai est l’un des fondateurs, avec les frères Cheng, du système métaphysique qui aboutit à la synthèse de Zhu Xi. Il est le contemporain, légèrement plus jeune, de Zhou Dunyi et de Shao… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Zhang Zai — (chinesisch 張載/张载 Zhāng Zǎi, W. G. Chang Tsai; * 1020; † 1077) war ein chinesischer neokonfuzianischer Moralphilosoph und Kosmologe aus der Zeit der Nördlichen Song Dynastie. Übersetzung Chang Tsai: Rechtes Auflichten. Cheng meng. Aus… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zhang Zai — o Chang Tsai (1020, Chang an, China–1077, China). Filósofo realista de la dinastía Song. Hijo de un magistrado, estudió budismo y taoísmo antes de sentirse inspirado por los clásicos confucianos. En su Cheng meng, declaró al Universo como una… … Enciclopedia Universal
Zhang — (chinesisch 張 / 张 Zhāng) gehört zu den häufigsten chinesischen Nachnamen. In der 1990er Ausgabe des Guinness Buchs der Rekorde wird der Name als häufigster Nachname der Welt bezeichnet, den weltweit über 100 Millionen Menschen … Deutsch Wikipedia
Zhang — (as used in expressions) Zhang Daoling Zhang Daqian Zhang Juzheng Zhang Yimou Zhang Zai Zhang Zhidong Zhang Zuolin * * * ▪ ancient unit of measurement Wade Giles chang an … Universalium
Zhang — (as used in expressions) Zhang Daoling Zhang Daqian Zhang Juzheng Zhang Yimou Zhang Zai Zhang Zhidong Zhang Zuolin … Enciclopedia Universal
Zhang Yanyuan — (simplified Chinese: 张彦远; traditional Chinese: 張彥遠; pinyin: Zhāng Yànyuǎn; Wade–Giles: Chang Yenyüan, ca. 815 ca. 877), courtesy name Aibin (爱宾), was a Chinese art historian, scholar, calligrapher and painter of the late Tang Dynasty. Biography… … Wikipedia
Zhang Xinxin — b. 1953, Beijing Writer Raised in Beijing, Zhang was sent to rural China to work during the Cultural Revolution, first as a peasant, then as a nurse. In 1978 she was admitted to the Central Academy of Theatre to study directing, but spent her… … Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture