Zetkin, Clara

orig. Clara Eissner

born July 5, 1857, Wiederau, Saxony
died June 20, 1933, Arkhangelskoye, Russia, U.S.S.R.

German communist leader.

She joined the Social Democratic Party in 1881, and she later married a Russian revolutionary exile, Ossip Zetkin (1848–89). From 1892 she edited the Socialist women's newspaper Die Gleichheit ("Equality") in Stuttgart. A friend of Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, Zetkin was a cofounder of the Spartacists (1916) and later joined the new Communist Party of Germany (1919). In 1921 she was elected to the presidium of the Third International (see Comintern). Her influence waned after Lenin's death in 1924.

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▪ German socialist
née Eissner
born July 5, 1857, Wiederau, Saxony
died June 20, 1933, Arkhangelskoye, Russian S.F.S.R.
 German feminist, Socialist, and Communist leader, who after World War I played a leading role in the new Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands; KPD) and the Comintern (Third International).

      Clara Eissner was educated at the Leipzig Teachers' College for Women, and while at school she established contacts with the infant Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD; Social Democratic Party). Her association with Russian revolutionaries led to her marriage with an exile, Ossip Zetkin (1848–89). She spent most of the 1880s in self-imposed exile in Switzerland and Paris, writing and distributing illegal literature and meeting many leading international Socialists.

      After participating in the founding congress of the Second Socialist International (1889), she returned to Germany and from Stuttgart edited the Socialist women's paper Die Gleichheit (“Equality”) from 1892 to 1917. In 1907 she was a cofounder of the International Socialist Women's Congress.

      A personal friend of Lenin and of the revolutionary writer and activist Rosa Luxemburg, Clara Zetkin organized the first international women's conference against World War I (Bern, 1915), was a cofounder in 1916 of the radical Spartacus League (Spartakusbund), and joined the new Communist Party of Germany in 1919, becoming a member of the party's central committee and serving in the Reichstag (federal lower house) from 1920.

      Elected to the presidium of the Third International (International, Third) (1921), she spent more and more of her time in Moscow. After Lenin's death in 1924, she began to lose much of her influence. Three volumes of collected works, Ausgewählte Reden und Schriften (“Selected Speeches and Writings”), were published in East Berlin from 1957 to 1960.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zetkin, Clara —    nee Eissner (1857 1933)    Marxist and feminist; one of the few radicals to hold an SPD office. She was born in Niederau, a village near Chemnitz. Her father was a Jewish schoolteacher; her mother awakened Clara s interest in women s* rights.… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Zetkin, Clara — (1857–1933)    Born in Saxony, Zetkin was one of the foremost figures in the German workers’ movement, and an activist in the campaign for women’s rights. Zetkin had her political baptism as a member of the German Social Democrat Party (SPD),… …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Zetkin, Clara — orig. Clara Eissner (5 jul. 1857, Wiederau, Sajonia–20 jun. 1933, Arjánguelskoie, Rusia, URSS). Dirigente comunista alemana. Se unió al Partido Socialdemócrata en 1881 y luego se casó con un exiliado revolucionario ruso, Ossip Zetkin (n. 1848–m.… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Clara Zetkin — in den 1920er Jahren, während ihrer Zeit als Reichstagsabgeordnete Clara Josephine Zetkin, geb. Eißner (* 5. Juli 1857 in Wiederau, Amtshauptmannschaft Rochlitz, Königreich Sachsen; † 20. Juni 1933 in Archangelskoje, Oblast Moskau, Sowjetunion),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Zetkin — (Clara Eisner, M me Ossip Zetkin) (1857 1933) révolutionnaire allemande; cofondatrice du Parti communiste allemand …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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