Whig Party

(1834–54) U.S. political party.

Organized by opponents of Pres. Andrew Jackson, whom they called "King Andrew," the party took its name from the British antimonarchist party. The U.S. Whigs favoured a program of national development. Jackson's opposition to the Second Bank of the United States (see Bank War) and nullification in South Carolina allowed Henry Clay to bring fiscal conservatives and southern states' rights proponents together in a coalition with those who still believed in the National Republican program of a protective tariff and federally financed internal improvements. The party also included members of the former Anti-Masonic Party. The Whig's candidate, William H. Harrison, won the 1840 presidential election and the party captured Congress, but Harrison's premature death halted enactment of the Whig program (his vice president and successor, John Tyler, vetoed much of the Whig's agenda). Clay was the party's unsuccessful candidate in the 1844 election. In 1848 it nominated Zachary Taylor, who won the presidency. The party began to split into the "conscience" (antislavery) and "cotton" (proslavery) Whigs and was further divided by the Compromise of 1850. Its nominee in the 1852 election, Winfield Scott, failed to win wide support as most Southern Whigs joined the Democratic Party. In 1854 most Northern Whigs joined the new Republican Party, though some joined the Know-Nothing Party.

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▪ historical American political party
      in U.S. history, major political party active in the period 1834–54 that espoused a program of national development but foundered on the rising tide of sectional antagonism. The Whig Party was formally organized in 1834, bringing together a loose coalition of groups united in their opposition to what party members viewed as the executive tyranny of “King Andrew” Jackson (Jackson, Andrew). They borrowed the name Whig from the British party opposed to royal prerogatives.

      Jackson had shattered the National Republican Party with his victories in 1828 and 1832. His war against the Second Bank of the United States and his opposition to nullification in South Carolina, however, allowed Henry Clay (Clay, Henry) to bring fiscal conservatives and southern states' rights proponents together in a coalition with those who still believed in the National Republican program of a protective tariff and federally financed internal improvements. Members of the Anti-Masonic Movement (q.v.) merged with the Whigs after the demise of the Anti-Masonic Party in the mid-1830s.

      Allied almost exclusively by their common dislike of Jackson and his policies—and later by their hunger for office—the Whigs never developed a definitive party program. In 1836 they ran three presidential candidates (Daniel Webster, Hugh L. White, and William Henry Harrison) to appeal to the East, South, and West, respectively, attempting to throw the election into the House of Representatives. In 1840 they abandoned the sectional approach to nominate the military hero William Henry Harrison (Harrison, William Henry). The subsequent contest was devoid of issues, Harrison winning on the basis of incessant electioneering by his supporters in the “log cabin” campaign.

      After capturing both the White House and Congress in 1840, the Whigs were poised to become the nation's dominant party and to enact Henry Clay's nationalistic program. Harrison died within a month of his inauguration, however, and his successor, John Tyler (Tyler, John), proceeded to veto major Whig legislation—including re-creation of the Bank of the United States.

      Clay, the nominee in 1844, lost the election when he misgauged the popularity of expansionism and opposed the annexation of Texas. By the late 1840s the Whig coalition was beginning to unravel as factions of “Conscience” (antislavery) Whigs and “Cotton” (proslavery) Whigs emerged. In 1848 the party returned to its winning formula by running a military hero—this time Zachary Taylor—for president. But the Compromise of 1850 (1850, Compromise of), fashioned by Henry Clay and signed into law by Millard Fillmore (who succeeded to the presidency on Taylor's death in 1850), fatally estranged the Conscience Whigs from their party.

      Again turning to a former general, the Whigs in 1852 nominated Gen. Winfield Scott. The North and South had become so polarized over the slavery issue that the Whigs were no longer able to make a broad national appeal on the basis of “unalterable attachment to the Constitution and the Union.” Scott collected just 42 electoral votes as many southern Whigs flocked to the banner of the states' rights oriented Democratic Party.

      By 1854 most northern Whigs had joined the newly formed Republican Party. To the extent that the party continued to exist, it commanded support only in the border states and from conservatives who refused to take sides in the sectional conflict. Many of the last remaining Whigs found a niche in the Know-Nothing Party during the second half of the 1850s and then backed the Constitutional Union Party as the country split apart in 1860.

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Universalium. 2010.

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