Triple Alliance, War of the
or Paraguayan War(1864/65–70) Bloodiest conflict in Latin American history, fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay.The Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López (1827–70), objecting to Brazil's interference in the politics of neighbouring Uruguay, declared war on Brazil in 1864. The next year Argentina organized the Triple Alliance with Brazil and Uruguay. After three years of fighting, the allies annihilated the Paraguayan forces, but Solano López carried on a guerrilla war until he was killed. Paraguay was devastated by the war; its population was reduced by half, and territory covering some 55,000 sq mi (140,000 sq km) was annexed by Brazil and Argentina.
* * *▪ South American historyalso called Paraguayan War , Spanish Guerra de la Triple Alianza , Portuguese Guerra da Tríplice Aliança(1864/65–70), the bloodiest conflict in Latin American history, fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay.Paraguay had been involved in boundary and tariff disputes with its more powerful neighbours, Argentina and Brazil, for years. The Uruguayans had also struggled to achieve and maintain their independence from those same powers, especially from Argentina.In 1864 Brazil helped the leader of Uruguay's Colorado Party to oust his Blanco Party opponent, whereupon the dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano López (López, Francisco Solano), believing that the regional balance of power was threatened, went to war with Brazil. Bartolomé Mitre (Mitre, Bartolomé), president of Argentina, then organized an alliance with Brazil and Colorado-controlled Uruguay (the Triple Alliance), and together they declared war on Paraguay on May 1, 1865.López's action—following his buildup of a 50,000-man army, then the strongest in Latin America—was viewed by many as aggression for self- and national aggrandizement; but, as the war wore on, many Argentines and others saw the conflict as Mitre's war of conquest.At the opening of the war, in 1865, Paraguayan forces advanced northward into the Brazilian province of Mato Grosso and southward into the province of Rio Grande do Sul. Logistical problems and the buildup of the allied troop strength, which soon outnumbered Paraguay's by 10 to 1, then forced the Paraguayans to withdraw behind their frontiers. In June 1865 Brazilian naval forces defeated a Paraguayan flotilla on the Paraná River at Riachuelo, near the Argentine city of Corrientes; by January 1866 the allies had blockaded the rivers leading to Paraguay. In April Mitre led an allied invading force into southwestern Paraguay but was prevented from advancing for two years. Fierce battles were fought; the most notable, won by the Paraguayans at Curupayty in September 1866, inhibited any allied offensive for nearly a year. Both sides suffered heavy losses in the campaign.In January 1868 Mitre was replaced as commander in chief by the Brazilian marquês (later duque) de Caxias. In February Brazilian armoured vessels broke through Paraguayan defenses at the river fortress of Humaitá, near the confluence of the Paraná and Paraguay rivers, and pressed on to bombard Asunción, the capital. In the Campaign of Lomas Valentinas in December, the Paraguayan army was annihilated. López fled northward and carried on a guerrilla war until he was killed on March 1, 1870.The Paraguayan people had been fanatically committed to López and the war effort, and as a result they fought to the point of dissolution. The war left Paraguay utterly prostrate; its prewar population of approximately 525,000 was reduced to about 221,000 in 1871, of which only about 28,000 were men. During the war the Paraguayans suffered not only from the enemy but also from malnutrition, disease, and the domination of López, who tortured and killed countless numbers. Argentina and Brazil annexed about 55,000 square miles (140,000 square km) of Paraguayan territory: Argentina took much of the Misiones region and part of the Chaco between the Bermejo and Pilcomayo rivers; Brazil enlarged its Mato Grosso province from annexed territory. They both demanded a large indemnity (which was never paid) and occupied Paraguay until 1876. Meanwhile, the Colorados had gained control of Uruguay, and they retained that control until 1958.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Triple Alliance War casualties — The War of the Triple Alliance (1864 ndash;1870) direct and indirect casualties:NOTE: deaths listed include being killed in action and/or of other causes such as dying of disease, atrocities etc.Brazil* 28,000 to 30,000 killed in action * 30,000… … Wikipedia
War of the Triple Alliance — Infobox Military Conflict conflict= War of the Triple Alliance partof= caption=Colonel Faria da Rocha reviewing Brazilian troops in front of the Tayi market, 1868. date= 1864 1870 place= South America casus= territory= result= Allied victory… … Wikipedia
Triple Alliance (1882) — The Triple Alliance in 1913, shown in red. The Triple Alliance was the military alliance between Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy, (as opposing the Triple Entente which consisted of an alliance between Britain, France and Russia), that lasted… … Wikipedia
Triple Alliance (1914) — The Triple Alliance is not to be confused with the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance included the National Union of Mineworkers, the National Union of Railwaymen and the National Transport Workers Federation, the last named being an association … Wikipedia
Triple Alliance (1668) — The Triple Alliance (1668) of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces was formed to halt the expansion of Louis XIV s France in the War of Devolution. The alliance never engaged in combat against France, but it was enough of a threat to force… … Wikipedia
Triple Alliance — (1882) A secret alliance of Austria Hungary, Germany, and Italy pledging mutual assistance in the event of an attack by France. Franco Italian relations had been strained since the Italian occupation of Rome in 1870. When France formalized its … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Triple Alliance — 1. the alliance (1882 1915) of Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy. 2. a league (1717) of France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands against Spain. 3. a league (1668) of England, Sweden, and the Netherlands against France. * * * (1882) Secret… … Universalium
War of the Quadruple Alliance — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=War of the Quadruple Alliance caption=The Battle of Cape Passaro, 11 August 1718 by Richard Paton (oil on canvas, 1767) date=1718–1720 place=Sicily, Sardinia, Spain, Scotland, Florida result=Allied Pyrrhic… … Wikipedia
Triple-Alliance — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le terme Triple Alliance désigne une alliance entre trois identités : Triple alliance (Mésoamérique) : mieux connue sous le nom d empire aztèque … Wikipédia en Français
Triple Alliance — A secret treaty signed by Germany, AustriaHungary, and Italy on 20 May 1882, the Triple Alliance bound the signatories to offer mutual assistance in the event that any one of them should be attacked by two or more powers Russia and France… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy