Thermidorian Reaction

(1794) Revolt in the French Revolution against the Reign of Terror that was initiated on 9 Thermidor (July 27).

Weary of the mounting executions (1,300 in June alone), deputies in the National Convention decreed the arrest of Maximilien Robespierre, Louis de Saint-Just, and other members of the Committee of Public Safety. They and others were guillotined, inaugurating a brief "White Terror" against the radical Jacobin Club. The Directory period followed soon afterward.

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▪ French history
      in the French Revolution, the parliamentary revolt initiated on 9 Thermidor, year II (July 27, 1794), which resulted in the fall of Maximilien Robespierre (Robespierre, Maximilien de) and the collapse of revolutionary fervour and the Reign of Terror (Terror, Reign of) in France.

      By June 1794 France had become fully weary of the mounting executions (1,300 in June alone), and Paris was alive with rumours of plots against Robespierre, member of the ruling Committee of Public Safety (Public Safety, Committee of) and leading advocate of the Terror. On 8 Thermidor (July 26) he gave a speech full of appeals and threats. The next day, the deputies in the National Convention shouted him down and decreed his arrest. He was arrested at the Hôtel de Ville, along with his brother Augustin, François Hanriot, Georges Couthon, and Louis de Saint-Just. The same guillotine that on 9 Thermidor executed 45 anti-Robespierrists executed, in the following three days, 104 Robespierrists, inaugurating a brief “White Terror” against Jacobins (Jacobin Club) throughout France.

      The coup was primarily a reassertion of the rights of the National Convention against the Committee of Public Safety and of the nation against the Paris Commune. It was followed by the disarming of the committee, the emptying of the prisons, and the purging of Jacobin clubs. Social and political life became freer, more extravagant, and more personally corrupt. There was a splurge of fashion and a conspicuous consumption of bourgeois wealth, while the poor suffered from harsh economic conditions.

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Universalium. 2010.

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