Tan Malaka, Ibrahim Datuk
born 1894died April 16, 1949, Blitar, Java, Indon.Indonesian communist leader.A schoolteacher, he became a communist after returning from Europe in 1919. He was exiled by the Dutch for trying to incite a general strike in 1922 but returned to Java in 1944 and, competing with Sukarno for control of the Indonesian nationalist movement, created a coalition that briefly came to power in 1946. He was imprisoned later that year on charges of attempting a coup. In 1948, while the Dutch and Indonesians were at war, he proclaimed himself head of Indonesia. Forced to flee the invading Dutch, within a few months he was captured and executed by Sukarno's supporters.
* * *▪ Minangkabau communist leader(Headman)born 1894died April 16, 1949, Blitar, JavaIndonesian Communist leader who competed with Sukarno for control of the Indonesian nationalist movement.Tan Malaka was a Minangkabau (a people of Sumatra) and a schoolteacher. When he returned in 1919 from Europe, where he was educated, he began to espouse Communist doctrines. The Communists had been working with the leading nationalist group, the Sarekat Islām (Islāmic Association) but in 1921 they split off and moved in the direction of revolutionary action, still trying to take with them local branches of Sarekat Islām. The following year Tan Malaka attempted to convert a strike of government pawnshop employees into a general strike, but the effort failed, and Dutch officials ordered him to leave the Dutch East Indies.Tan Malaka represented Indonesia at the Fourth Congress of the Comintern (Communist International) in 1922, when he was appointed Comintern agent for Southeast Asia and Australia. He opposed as premature a Communist-backed rebellion in 1926 and was blamed by its proponents for the uprising's failure. The next year, however, he organized a group in Bangkok called the Indonesian Republic Party; its aim was to develop underground cadres to work in Indonesia. The party gained strength, but with little visible success in weakening colonial rule.Tan Malaka returned to Java in 1944, during the Japanese occupation in World War II, and afterward competed for power against Indonesian president Sukarno. Sukarno, however, outmanoeuvred Tan Malaka by bringing Sutan Sjahrir to power as prime minister. Tan Malaka responded by creating a coalition, called the Persatuan Perdjuangan (United Struggle), to oppose any negotiated settlement with the Dutch, which Sjahrir favoured. When Sjahrir resigned in February 1946, Tan Malaka was asked to form a Cabinet. The members of the coalition failed to reach accord, however, and Sjahrir was recalled. Tan Malaka then either attempted a coup or was caught up in the plans of others and was arrested on July 6, 1946, and held for two years without trial. On his release he supported a new political party, the Partai Murba (Proletarian Party). At that time the Dutch and Indonesians were at war for control of the country, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta were prisoners of the Dutch, and much of the Communist leadership had been killed. In December 1948 Tan Malaka made a bid for control of the Indonesian revolution. From the city of Kediri, Java, which remained in Indonesian hands, Tan Malaka proclaimed himself head of Indonesia. When the Dutch attacked Kediri, he escaped but within a few months was captured and executed by supporters of Sukarno.Tan Malaka wrote several political works; the best known is the autobiographical Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara (“From Prison to Prison”). He was a powerful, moving force in the creation of Indonesia but, after 1966 and the massacre of Communists, his name went into eclipse.
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Tan Malaka, Ibrahim Datuk — (1894–16 abr. 1949, Blitar, Java, Indonesia). Líder comunista indonesio. Maestro de escuela, adhirió al comunismo después de regresar de Europa en 1919. Fue exiliado por los neerlandeses por tratar de incitar una huelga general en 1922, pero… … Enciclopedia Universal
Tan Malaka — (1894 February 21 1949) was an Indonesian nationalist activist and communist leader. A staunch critic of both the colonial Dutch East Indies government and the republican Sukarno administration that governed the country after the Indonesian… … Wikipedia
Tan Malaka — (* 1894 in Suliki, Westsumatra; † 21. Februar 1949) war ein indonesischer nationalistischer und kommunistischer Führer. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tan Malaka — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Malaka. Tan Malaka Tan Malaka (1897 1949) est un militant nationaliste et un dirigeant communiste indonésien. Dénonciateur véhément … Wikipédia en Français
Tan Malaka — Retrato de Tan Malaka. Datuk Ibrahim gelar Sutan Malaka (1894 1949), más conocido como Tan Malaka, fue un político nacionalista y comunista de Indonesia. A pesar de vivir gran parte de su vida en el exilio, jugó un papel clave en los movimientos… … Wikipedia Español
Tan — /tan/, n. Amy, born 1952, U.S. novelist. * * * (as used in expressions) Black and Tan Tan Cheng Lock Tan Malaka Ibrahim Datuk * * * … Universalium
TAN — /tan/, n. tax anticipation note. * * * (as used in expressions) Black and Tan Tan Cheng Lock Tan Malaka Ibrahim Datuk * * * … Universalium
Ibrahim — (as used in expressions) Ibrahim Pasha Ibrahim Husayn Shadhili Sayyid QuTb Tan Malaka Ibrahim Datuk Shaykh Ahmad ibn Zayn al Din Ibrahim al Ahsai Ghiyath al Din Abu al Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim al Neyshaburi al Khayyami * * * ▪ Ottoman sultan born… … Universalium
tan — I (Voz onomatopéyica.) ► sustantivo masculino Sonido o eco producido al golpear el tambor, la campana u otro instrumento semejante. II (Del fr. tam < germ. tannos, roble.) ► sustantivo masculino BOTÁNICA Corteza de encina. III (Del lat. tam.)… … Enciclopedia Universal
tan — tan1 tannable, adj. /tan/, v., tanned, tanning, n., adj., tanner, tannest. v.t. 1. to convert (a hide) into leather, esp. by soaking or steeping in a bath prepared from tanbark or synthetically. 2. to make brown by exposure to ultraviolet rays,… … Universalium