- born Feb. 11, 1898, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungarydied May 30, 1964, La Jolla, Calif., U.S.Hungarian-born U.S. physicist.He taught at the University of Berlin (1922–33), then fled to England (1934–37) and the U.S., where he worked at the University of Chicago from 1942. In 1929 he established the relation between entropy and transfer of information, and in 1934 he helped develop the first method of separating isotopes of artificial radioactive elements. He helped Enrico Fermi conduct the first sustained nuclear chain reaction and construct the first nuclear reactor. In 1939 he was instrumental in establishing the Manhattan Project, in which he helped develop the atomic bomb. After the first use of the bomb, he promoted the peaceful uses of atomic energy and the control of nuclear weapons, founding the Council for a Livable World. In 1959 he received the Atoms for Peace Award.
* * *▪ American physicistborn Feb. 11, 1898, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungarydied May 30, 1964, La Jolla, Calif., U.S.Hungarian-born American physicist who helped conduct the first sustained nuclear chain reaction and was instrumental in initiating the Manhattan Project for the development of the atomic bomb.In 1922 Szilard received his Ph.D. from the University of Berlin and joined the staff of the Institute of Theoretical Physics there. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, he went to Vienna and, in 1934, to London, where he joined the physics staff of the medical college of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. There, with the British physicist T.A. Chalmers, Szilard developed the first method of separating isotopes (different nuclear forms of the same element) of artificial radioactive elements. In 1937 Szilard went to the United States and taught at Columbia University.In 1939 Szilard, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner persuaded Albert Einstein to write the famous letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt advocating the immediate development of an atomic bomb. From 1942 until the end of the war he conducted nuclear research at the University of Chicago, where he helped Enrico Fermi construct the first nuclear reactor. In 1946 he became professor of biophysics at Chicago.After the atomic bomb was first used, Szilard became an ardent promoter of the peaceful uses of atomic energy and the international control of nuclear weapons, founding the Council for a Livable World. In 1959 he received the Atoms for Peace Award. He published a collection of satirical sketches on the misuse of scientific knowledge entitled The Voice of the Dolphins and Other Stories (1961).
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SZILARD, LEO — (1898–1964), Hungarian physicist and extraordinary polymath. He was born in Budapest and studied at the Minta School and at Budapest Technical University (1916–19). His engineering course was disrupted by World War I service in the Austro… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Szilard , Leo — (1898–1964) Hungarian–American physicist Szilard, the son of an architect, studied engineering in his native city of Budapest before moving to the University of Berlin where he began the study of physics and obtained his doctorate in 1922. He… … Scientists
Szilard, Leo — SUBJECT AREA: Weapons and armour [br] b. 11 February 1898 Budapest, Hungary d. 30 May 1964 La Jolla, California, USA [br] Hungarian (naturalized American in 1943) nuclear and biophysicist. [br] The son of an engineer, Szilard, after service in… … Biographical history of technology
Szilard,Leo — Szi·lard (zĭlʹərd, zə lärdʹ), Leo. 1898 1964. Hungarian born American physicist and biologist. A member of the Manhattan Engineering Project, he helped develop the first atomic bomb. Szilard was later opposed to the construction and use of all… … Universalium
Szilard, Leo — (1898 1964) American physicist of Hungarian origin. He studied at the University of Berlin. With the rise of Nazism, he went to England and worked at Oxford University. He then went to the US. From 1960 he was professor at the Enrico Fermi… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
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Szilard, Leo — (1898–1964) Hungarian born American physicist … Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors
Leo Szilard — Leó Szilárd 1916 im Alter von 18 Jahren Leó Szilárd (* 11. Februar 1898 in Budapest; † 30. Mai 1964 in La Jolla, Kalifornien) war ein ungarisch deutsch amerikanischer Physiker und … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Leo Szilard — Leó Szilárd Leó Szilárd en 1916 Leó Szilárd (11 février 1898 à Budapest– 30 mai 1964 à La Jolla en Californie) était un physicien hungaro américain. Parmi les premiers à envisager les applications miltaires de l énergie… … Wikipédia en Français