Starling, Ernest Henry

born April 17, 1866, London, Eng.
died May 2, 1927, Kingston Harbour, Jam.

British physiologist.

His studies of lymph secretion clarified the roles of different pressures in fluid exchanges between vessels and tissues. Starling and William Bayliss showed how nerve impulses control peristalsis and coined the term hormone. Starling also found that water and necessary chemicals filtered out by the kidneys are reabsorbed at the lower end of the nephron. His Principles of Human Physiology (1912), continually revised, was a standard international text.

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▪ British physiologist
born April 17, 1866, London
died May 2, 1927, Kingston Harbour, Jamaica
 British physiologist whose prolific contributions to a modern understanding of body functions, especially the maintenance of a fluid balance throughout the tissues, the regulatory role of endocrine secretions, and mechanical controls on heart function, made him one of the foremost scientists of his time.

      While serving as an instructor (1889–99) at Guy's Hospital, London (M.D., 1890), Starling undertook investigations of lymph secretion that resulted in his clarification of the nature of fluid exchanges between vessels and tissues. Formulating what is known as Starling's hypothesis (1896), he stated that, because the capillary wall may be considered a semipermeable membrane, allowing salt solutions to pass freely through it, the hydrostatic pressure forcing these solutions into tissues is balanced by the osmotic pressure—generated by colloidal (protein) solutions trapped in the capillary—forcing an absorption of fluid from the tissues.

      As professor of physiology at University College, London (1899–1923), Starling began a highly profitable collaboration with the British physiologist William Bayliss (Bayliss, Sir William Maddock) that immediately saw their demonstration (1899) of the nervous control of the peristaltic wave (peristalsis), the muscle action responsible for the movement of food through the intestine. In 1902 they isolated a substance that they called secretin, released into the blood from the epithelial cells of the duodenum (between the stomach and small intestine), which in turn stimulates secretion into the intestine of pancreatic digestive juice. Two years later, Starling coined the term hormone to denote such substances released in a restricted part of the body (endocrine gland), carried by the bloodstream to unconnected parts, where, in extremely small quantities, they are capable of profoundly influencing the function of those parts.

      After government-sponsored World War I research concerning poison gas defense, Starling developed an isolated heart-lung preparation that enabled him to formulate (1918) his “law of the heart,” stating that the force of muscular contraction of the heart is directly proportional to the extent to which the muscle is stretched.

      Studying kidney function, he found (1924) that water, chlorides, bicarbonates, and glucose, lost in the excretory filtrate, are reabsorbed at the lower end of the kidney tubules (glomeruli). His Principles of Human Physiology (1912), continually revised, was a standard international text.

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  • Starling , Ernest Henry — (1866–1927) British physiologist A Londoner by birth, Starling studied medicine at Guy s Hospital, London, where he obtained his MB in 1889 and eventually became head of the department of physiology. In 1899 he moved to University College, London …   Scientists

  • Starling, Ernest Henry — (17 abr. 1866, Londres, Inglaterra–2 may. 1927, Kingston Harbour, Jamaica). Fisiólogo británico. Sus estudios sobre la secreción de la linfa aclararon la función de las diferentes presiones que participan en el intercambio de líquidos entre los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ernest Henry Starling — Ernest Starling. Ernest Henry Starling (* 17. April 1866, in London; † 2. Mai 1927 in Kingston Harbour, Jamaika) war ein englischer Physiologe. 1896 stellte Starling die nach ihm benannte Starling Gleichung auf. 1905 führte er den Begriff… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ernest Starling — Ernest Starling. Ernest Henry Starling (* 17. April 1866 in London; † 2. Mai 1927 in Kingston Harbour, Jamaika) war ein englischer Physiologe. 1896 stellte Starling die nach ihm benannte Starling Gleichung auf. 1905 führte er den Begriff des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ernest — /err nist/, n. a male given name: from an Old English word meaning vigor, intent. * * * (as used in expressions) Ernest Banks Bevin Ernest Bloch Ernest Borlaug Norman Ernest Boulanger Georges Ernest Jean Marie Chausson Amédée Ernest Durocher Leo… …   Universalium

  • Ernest — (as used in expressions) Ernest Banks Bevin, Ernest Bloch, Ernest Borlaug, Norman (Ernest) Boulanger, Georges (Ernest Jean Marie) Chausson, (Amédée) Ernest Durocher, Leo (Ernest) Ernest Jennings Goodpasture, E(rnest) W(illiam) Hemingway, Ernest… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • henry — /hen ree/, n., pl. henries, henrys. Elect. the SI unit of inductance, formally defined to be the inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive force of one volt is produced when the electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at a …   Universalium

  • Henry — /hen ree/, n. 1. Joseph, 1797 1878, U.S. physicist. 2. O., pen name of William Sydney Porter. 3. Patrick, 1736 99, American patriot, orator, and statesman. 4. Cape, a cape in SE Virginia at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. 5. Fort. See …   Universalium

  • Henry — ► sustantivo masculino ELECTRICIDAD Denominación del henrio en la nomenclatura internacional. IRREG. plural henrys * * * henrio o henry (de J. Henry, físico inglés) m. Fís. Unidad de inductancia eléctrica en el Sistema Internacional. * * * …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • henry — ► sustantivo masculino ELECTRICIDAD Denominación del henrio en la nomenclatura internacional. IRREG. plural henrys * * * henrio o henry (de J. Henry, físico inglés) m. Fís. Unidad de inductancia eléctrica en el Sistema Internacional. * * * henry …   Enciclopedia Universal

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