Southey, Robert

born Aug. 12, 1774, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.
died March 21, 1843, Keswick, Cumberland

English poet and prose writer.

In youth Southey ardently embraced the ideals of the French Revolution, as did Samuel Taylor Coleridge, with whom he was associated from 1794. Like Coleridge, he gradually became more conservative. About 1799 he devoted himself to writing; later he was obliged to produce unremittingly to support both his and Coleridge's family. In 1813 he was appointed poet laureate. His poetry is now little read, but his prose style is masterly in its ease and clarity, as seen in such works as Life of Nelson (1813), Life of Wesley (1820), and The Doctor (1834–47), a fantastic, rambling miscellany.

* * *

▪ English author
born Aug. 12, 1774, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng.
died March 21, 1843, Keswick, Cumberland
 English poet and writer of miscellaneous prose who is chiefly remembered for his association with Samuel Taylor Coleridge (Coleridge, Samuel Taylor) and William Wordsworth, both of whom were leaders of the early Romantic movement.

      The son of a linen draper, Southey spent much of his childhood at Bath in the care of his aunt, Elizabeth Tyler. Educated at Westminster School and Balliol College, Oxford, Southey expressed his ardent sympathy for the French Revolution in the long poem Joan of Arc (published 1796). He first met Coleridge, who shared his views, in 1794, and together they wrote a verse drama, The Fall of Robespierre (1794). After leaving Oxford without a degree, Southey planned to carry out Coleridge's project for a pantisocracy, or utopian agricultural community, to be located on the banks of the Susquehanna River, in the United States. But his interest in pantisocracy faded, causing a temporary breach with Coleridge.

      In 1795 he secretly married Edith Fricker, whose sister, Sara, Coleridge was soon to marry. That same year he went to Portugal with his uncle, who was the British chaplain in Lisbon. While in Portugal he wrote the letters published as Letters Written During a Short Residence in Spain and Portugal (1797), studied the literature of those two countries, and learned to “thank God [he was] an Englishman.” So began the change from revolutionary to Tory.

      In 1797 he began to receive an annuity of £160 that was paid to him for nine years by an old Westminster school friend, Charles Wynn, and in 1797–99 he published a second volume of his Poems. In these years he composed many of his best short poems and ballads and became a regular contributor to newspapers and reviews. Southey also did translations, edited the works of Thomas Chatterton, completed the epic Thalaba the Destroyer (1801), and worked on the epic poem Madoc (1805).

      In 1803 the Southeys visited the Coleridges, then living at Greta Hall, Keswick. The Southeys remained at Greta Hall for life, partly so that Sara and Edith could be together. Southey's friendship with Wordsworth, then at nearby Grasmere, dates from this time. The Southeys had seven children of their own, and, after Coleridge left his family for Malta, the whole household was economically dependent on Southey. He was forced to produce unremittingly—poetry, criticism, history, biography, journalism, translations, and editions of earlier writers. During 1809–38 he wrote, for the Tory Quarterly Review, 95 political articles, for each of which he received £100. Of most interest today are those articles urging the state provision of “social services.” He also worked on a projected history of Portugal that he was destined never to finish; only his History of Brazil, 3 vol. (1810–19), was published. His edition (1817) of Sir Thomas Malory's 15th-century Le Morte Darthur played an important part in generating renewed interest in the Middle Ages during the 19th century.

      In 1813 Southey was appointed poet laureate through the influence of Sir Walter Scott. But the unauthorized publication (1817) of Wat Tyler, an early verse drama reflecting his youthful political opinions, enabled his enemies to remind the public of his youthful republicanism. About this time he became involved in a literary imbroglio with Lord Byron (Byron, George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron). Byron had already attacked Southey in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809) and had dedicated to him (1819) the first cantos of Don Juan, a satire on hypocrisy. In his introduction to A Vision of Judgement (1821), Southey continued the quarrel by denouncing Byron as belonging to a “Satanic school” of poetry, and Byron replied by producing a masterful parody of Southey's own poem under the title The Vision of Judgment (1822). The historian Thomas Macaulay unleashed a similarly devastating riposte to Southey's Sir Thomas More; or, Colloquies on the Progress and Prospects of Society (1829), a major statement of 19th-century political medievalism. Southey's last years were clouded by his wife's insanity, by family quarrels resulting from his second marriage after her death (1837), and by his own failing mental and physical health.

      Except for a few lyrics, ballads, and comic-grotesque poems—such as “My days among the Dead are past,” “After Blenheim,” and “The Inchcape Rock”—Southey's poetry is little read today, though his “English Eclogues” (1799) anticipate Alfred Tennyson's “English Idyls” as lucid, relaxed, and observant verse accounts of contemporary life. His prose style, however, has been long regarded as masterly in its ease and clarity. These qualities are best seen in his Life of Nelson (1813), still a classic; in the Life of Wesley; and the Rise and Progress of Methodism (1820); in the lively Letters from England: By Don Manuel Alvarez Espriella, the observations of a fictitious Spaniard (1807); and in the anonymously published The Doctor, 7 vol. (1834–47), a rambling miscellany packed with comment, quotations, and anecdotes (including the well-known children's classic “The Story of the Three Bears”). His less successful epic poems are verse romances having a mythological or legendary subject matter set in the past and in distant places. In his prose works and in his voluminous correspondence, which gives a detailed picture of his literary surroundings and friends, Southey's effortless mastery of prose is clearly evident, a fact attested to by such eminent contemporaries as William Hazlitt and Scott and even by such an enemy as Byron.

Additional Reading
Geoffrey Carnall, Robert Southey and His Age (1960); Lionel Madden (ed.), Robert Southey: The Critical Heritage (1972, reissued 1995); Kenneth Curry, Southey (1975).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Southey, Robert — Southey, Robert, königl. großbritannischer Hofpoet, geb. in Bristol 1774, dichtete schon vor dem 21. Jahre seine »Jeanne d Arc« (Joan of Arc), die allgemeine Aufmerksamkeit erregte und reich an ächtheroischen und tiefpoetischen Stellen ist. Auf… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Southey, Robert — (1774 1843)    Born at Bristol, Somerset, the son of a linen draper, he was educated at Westminster School, from which he was expelled for writing a protest in a school magazine against excessive flogging. He met Samuel Taylor Coleridge (see… …   British and Irish poets

  • Southey, Robert — ► (1774 1843) Poeta y escritor británico. Formó parte del grupo lakista. Autor de Rodrigo, el último de los godos. * * * (12 ago. 1774, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Inglaterra–21 mar. 1843, Keswick, Cumberland). Poeta y narrador inglés. En su… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • SOUTHEY, ROBERT —    poet laureate, born, the son of a linen draper, at Bristol; was expelled from Westminster School for a satirical article in the school magazine directed against flogging; in the following year (1793) entered Balliol College, where he only… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Southey, Robert — (1774 1843)    Poet, biographer, etc., s. of an unsuccessful linen draper in Bristol, where he was b., was sent to Westminster School, and in 1792 went to Oxf. His friendship with Coleridge began in 1794, and with him he joined in the scheme of a …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • Southey,Robert — Sou·they (souʹthē, sŭthʹē), Robert. 1774 1843. British writer noted for his romantic poetry, criticism, and biographical works. * * * …   Universalium

  • Southey — Southey, Robert …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Robert Southey — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Robert Southey, poeta inglés. Robert Southey (12 de agosto de 1774 21 de marzo de 1843) fue un poeta inglés de la escuela …   Wikipedia Español

  • Robert Southey — (Bristol, 12 août 1774 21 mars 1843) est un écrivain romantique anglais auteur d une œuvre abondante et variée. Poète lauréat, il est avant tout célèbre pour sa poésie, mais il a également écrit de nombreuses …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Southey — Infobox Writer name = Robert Southey caption = birth date = birth date|1774|08|12 birth place = Bristol, England death date = death date and age|1843|03|21|1774|08|12 death place = London, England occupation = Poet movement = Romanticism genre =… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.