Shamir, Yitzhak

orig. Yitzhak Jazernicki

born Oct. 15, 1915, Ruzinoy, Pol., Russian Empire

Polish-born Israeli statesman.

He immigrated in 1935 to Palestine, where he helped found the Israel Freedom Fighters, later known as the Stern Gang. Twice arrested by British authorities (1941, 1946), he twice escaped and eventually found asylum in France. After Israel achieved independence, he served as a secret-service operative until 1965. He was speaker of the Knesset (1977–80) and later foreign minister under Menachem Begin (1980–83). He became prime minister in 1983; in 1984 an indecisive election led to his sharing power with the Labour Party leader Shimon Peres, and Shamir acted as prime minister for the six years beginning in 1986, which included another indecisive election in 1988 and the formation of a coalition government in 1990, but lost power in 1992. He retired from the Knesset in 1996.

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▪ prime minister of Israel
original name  Yitzḥak Jazernicki , also spelled  Yezernitzky,  Yizernitsky , or  Ysernitzky 
born Oct. 15, 1915, Ruzinoy, Pol., Russian Empire [now Ruzhany, Belarus]
 Polish-born Zionist leader and prime minister of Israel in 1983–84 and 1986–90 (in alliance with Shimon Peres of the Labour Party) and in 1990–92.

      Shamir joined the Beitar Zionist youth movement as a young man and studied law in Warsaw. He emigrated to Palestine in 1935 and enrolled at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. There he joined the Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL) underground movement; and in 1940, following a policy split in the IZL, he joined the Israel Freedom Fighters (IFF), a terrorist group later known as the Stern Gang (after its founder, Abraham Stern).

      Following the death of Stern, Shamir played a central part in reorganizing the Sternist Central Committee. Shamir was arrested by the British-mandate authorities in 1941 and 1946. After his second escape from internment, he made his way to France, where he was granted asylum. He returned to Israel in May 1948 and then served as a Mossad secret-service operative in Europe until 1965. After engaging in private commerce for a time, he joined Menachem Begin's Herut movement, which in 1973 joined with other smaller parties to form the Likud. In March 1975 Shamir was elected chairman of the party executive of Herut. First elected to the Knesset (Israeli parliament) in 1973, he became speaker of the Knesset after the Likud's electoral victory in 1977.

      Begin, as prime minister, appointed Shamir to be minister of foreign affairs in March 1980. In September 1983 the Likud Party elected Shamir to succeed the retiring Begin as its new leader, but he lost the prime ministry in the indecisive elections of July 1984. In September 1984 Shamir, the Likud hard-liner, and Shimon Peres (Peres, Shimon), head of the Labour Party, formed a makeshift coalition government in which Peres served as prime minister for the first half of a 50-month term and Shamir served as deputy prime minister and foreign minister; the roles were reversed for the second 25 months, and Shamir thus assumed the office of prime minister in October 1986. After similarly indecisive elections in 1988, the Likud and Labour parties formed another coalition government, with Shamir as prime minister. In 1990, after his government fell, Shamir eventually succeeded in forming his own coalition government (without Labour), including several representatives of ultraconservative groups. In the general elections of 1992, the Likud lost and Shamir's government fell.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Shamir,Yitzhak — Sha·mir (shə mērʹ), Yitzhak. Originally Yitzhak Yezernitsky. Born 1915. Polish born Israeli politician. He served as a member of Israel s intelligence agency (1955 1965), the Israeli parliament (1973 1996), and as prime minister (1983 1984 and… …   Universalium

  • Shamir, Yitzhak — (b. 1915)    Israeli politician. Shamir was born in Ruzimir, Poland and educated at Warsaw University and the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. He emigrated to Palestine in 1935. He was a member of the Irgun and a founder member and leader of the… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Shamir, Yitzhak — orig. Yitzhak Jazernicki (n. 15 oct. 1915, Ruzinov, Polonia, Imperio ruso). Estadista israelí de origen polaco. En 1935 emigró a Palestina, donde ayudó a fundar la organización Combatientes por la libertad de Israel, conocida más tarde como la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Shamir, Yitzhak —  (1915–) Prime minister of Israel (1983–1984, 1988–1992); born Yitzhak Jazernicki …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Shamir, Yitzhak — (b. 1915)    Israeli statesman. He was born in Ruzinoy, Polland. He emigrated to Palestine in 1935 and joined Irgun Tzevai Leumi. He later helped to reorganize the Central Committee of the Lohame Herat Yisrael. He was elected to the Knesset in… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

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  • SHAMIR (Yazernitzki), YITZHAK — (1915– ), pre state underground leader and Israeli prime minister, member of the Eighth to Thirteenth Knesset. Born in Ruzinoy, in Eastern Poland, Shamir studied at a Hebrew gymnasium in Bialystok, and was a member of the betar youth movement .… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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