born July 23, 1401, San Miniato, Tuscanydied March 8, 1466, MilanItalian mercenary and duke of Milan (1450–66).He became condottiere of Florence in 1434 and defeated Milan twice (1438, 1440), then was hired by the Milanese to serve as captain general in their struggle to found a republic (1447). He later blockaded the city and seized control, becoming duke of Milan in 1450, and he allied with Florence to secure the Peace of Lodi (1454). See also Sforza family.
* * *▪ duke of Milan [1401–66]born July 23, 1401, San Miniato, Tuscany [Italy]died March 8, 1466, Milancondottiere who played a crucial role in 15th-century Italian politics and, as duke of Milan, founded a dynasty that ruled for nearly a century.The illegitimate son of a mercenary commander, Muzio Attendolo Sforza, Francesco grew up at the court of Ferrara and accompanied his father to Naples, where Muzio entered the employ of King Ladislas. Francesco later served in Muzio's company until 1424, when his father drowned in battle against an old rival, the condottiere Braccio da Montone. Francesco then took over the command, defeating and fatally wounding Braccio near L'Aquila, northeast of Rome. Entering the service of Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of Milan, Sforza fought alternately for and against him in the succeeding 20 years. During periods of uneasy truce he became betrothed (1433) to and married (1441) the duke's illegitimate daughter and only child, Bianca Maria.In 1434 Sforza made a pact with Cosimo de' Medici (Medici, Cosimo de'), who paid him a substantial subsidy and had him appointed condottiere of Florence. Fighting for the Florentine-Venetian League against Milan in 1438, he won a battle at Lake Garda and captured Verona. Two years later he inflicted an even more crushing defeat on the Milanese at Anghiari, near Florence. In 1443 (two years after his marriage) Sforza was once more at war with his father-in-law.The duke fell mortally ill in 1447; and, with a Venetian army threatening Milan, he called on his son-in-law for help. On his way to Milan, Sforza learned that the duke had died and had named, not him, but Alfonso of Aragon, king of Naples, as his successor. The Milanese seized the occasion to rebel and proclaimed a republic, hiring Sforza as their captain general. A three-cornered struggle then ensued among the Milanese republic, Venice, and Sforza. In 1449 Milan concluded peace with Venice behind Sforza's back, whereupon he blockaded the city, starving it into insurrection. Subsequently, on Feb. 26, 1450, he made his triumphant entry into the city as duke of Milan.The following year Venice, Naples, Savoy, and Montferrat joined forces against Sforza, who turned to Cosimo de' Medici and concluded a Milan–Florence alliance that brought about the Peace of Lodi (1454) and permitted him to consolidate his rule over Milan. His government, though despotic, apparently was enlightened. Though Sforza was primarily a warrior, he and his children became known as patrons of the arts and enriched Milan architecturally.
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Sforza, Francesco — (23 jul. 1401, San Miniato, Toscana–8 mar. 1466, Milán). Mercenario italiano y duque de Milán (1450–66). Fue condottiero al servicio de Florencia en 1434 y derrotó a Milán en dos ocasiones (1438, 1440); luego lo contrataron los milaneses para que … Enciclopedia Universal
Francesco Sforza — Francesco Sforza, par Bonifacio Bembo, Pinacothèque de Brera, Milan Pays Duché de Milan … Wikipédia en Français
Francesco Sforza — (* 23. Juli 1401 in San Miniato, Provinz Pisa; † 6. März 1466 in Mailand) war der Gründer der Dynastie der Sforza in Mailand. Porträt von Francesco Sforza, um 1460, von … Deutsch Wikipedia
Francesco II Sforza — (February 4 1495 ndash; October 24 1535), also known as Francesco Maria Sforza [To distinguish him from the earlier Francesco Sforza.] , was the last Duke of Milan from 1521 [His possession of the Duchy was not finalized until the end of the… … Wikipedia
Francesco II. Sforza — (* 4. Februar 1495; † 24. Oktober 1535) war der jüngere Sohn des Herzogs Ludovico Sforza von Mailand und der Beatrice d’Este und der letzte souveräne Herzog von Mailand in der Geschichte. Als sein Vater 1499 vom französischen König Ludwig XII.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sforza — Wappen der Sforzas Wappen der Sfor … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sforza — El primer déspota italiano de la dinastía Sforza en Milán fue Francesco Sforza, quien era previamente el Condotiero de Filippo Maria Visconti, a quien reemplazó en 1450. Su mandato está caracterizado como un periodo de gran estabilidad y de… … Enciclopedia Universal
Sforza — /sfawrt seuh/; It. /sfawrdd tsah/, n. 1. Count Carlo /kahrdd law/, 1873 1952, Italian statesman: anti Fascist leader. 2. Francesco /frddahn ches kaw/, 1401 66, Italian condottiere and duke of Milan 1450 66. 3. his father, Giacomuzzo /jah kaw mooh … Universalium
Francesco — (as used in expressions) Francesco di Cristofano de Giudicis Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola Francesco Petrarca Albani Francesco Francesco Albano Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino Borromini Francesco Francesco Castelli Cavalli Pier Francesco… … Universalium
Francesco — (as used in expressions) Albani, Francesco Francesco Albano Roberto Francesco Romolo Bellarmino Borromini, Francesco Francesco Castelli Cavalli, (Pier) Francesco Pietro Francesco Caletti Bruni Crispi, Francesco Francia, Francesco Francesco di… … Enciclopedia Universal