Sedan, Battle of

(Sept. 1, 1870) Defeat of the French army in the Franco-Prussian War that led to the fall of the Second Empire.

At the French border fortress of Sedan on the Meuse River, 120,000 French troops under Maurice, count de Mac-Mahon, were attacked by more than 200,000 German troops under Helmuth von Moltke. After Mac-Mahon was wounded, the confused French command tried unsuccessfully to break through the encircling German lines with massive cavalry charges. Emperor Napoleon III, who had accompanied Mac-Mahon, realized the French position was hopeless and surrendered with 83,000 troops.

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▪ European history
 (Sept. 1, 1870), decisive defeat of the French army in the Franco-German War, which led to the fall of the Second French Empire; it was fought at the French border fortress of Sedan on the Meuse River, between 120,000 French troops under Marshal Mac-Mahon (Mac-Mahon, Marie-Edme-Patrice-Maurice, comte de (count of), Duc De (duke of) Magenta) and more than 200,000 German troops under General Helmuth von Moltke (Moltke, Helmuth von).

      Mac-Mahon had intended to march his army, accompanied by Napoleon III, from Châlons-sur-Marne northeast toward Metz, to relieve the French Army of the Rhine, which was trapped at Metz. Moltke learned of Mac-Mahon's movements through newspaper reports and rapidly moved the newly formed Army of the Meuse, under Crown Prince Albert of Saxony, north to intercept Mac-Mahon. In three small engagements on the Meuse River (August 29 to 31), the Germans forced Mac-Mahon to fall back to the fortress at Sedan. While Mac-Mahon tried to consider whether to try again to smash through eastward toward Metz or instead to retreat west to Paris, Moltke moved up the 3rd Prussian Army, under Crown Prince Frederick William (Frederick III), to complete the encirclement of Sedan.

      The wounding of Mac-Mahon early on September 1 caused extreme confusion in the French command, allowing the Germans to carry on their encirclement without serious opposition. Thereafter, the desperate French efforts to break out, including massive cavalry charges, led to nothing but high casualties. After the German artillery had pounded the French position in an all-day bombardment, the Germans launched their main attack in the afternoon. Emperor Napoleon III realized that the position was hopeless. He surrendered, and the next morning he and 83,000 French soldiers became prisoners of war. The French had lost 3,000 men killed, 14,000 wounded, and 21,000 missing or captured. German losses totaled 9,000 men killed and wounded. As the victorious Germans marched toward Paris, a popular uprising there on September 4 toppled the government of the Second Empire and set up a provisional republican government.

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Universalium. 2010.

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