Schuschnigg, Kurt von

born Dec. 14, 1897, Riva del Garda, Trento, Austria-Hungary
died Nov. 18, 1977, Mutters, near Innsbruck, Austria

Austrian politician and chancellor (1934–38).

Elected to the Austrian parliament in 1927, he served in the government of Engelbert Dollfuss as minister of justice (1932) and education (1933–34). After Dollfuss was assassinated, Schuschnigg was named chancellor. He disbanded the paramilitary Heimwehr in 1936 and tried to prevent the German takeover of Austria. After making concessions to Adolf Hitler in February 1938, he sought to reassert national independence through a plebiscite to be held on March 13. However, on March 11 Germany invaded Austria and carried out the Anschluss, and Schuschnigg was imprisoned until the war ended. He later lived and taught in the U.S. (1948–67).

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▪ chancellor of Austria
born Dec. 14, 1897, Riva del Garda, Trento, Austria-Hungary [now in Italy]
died Nov. 18, 1977, Mutters, near Innsbruck, Austria
 Austrian statesman and chancellor who struggled to prevent the Nazi takeover of Austria (March 1938).

      As an Innsbruck lawyer of monarchist political sympathies attached to the Christian Social Party, he was elected to the federal Nationalrat (lower house of parliament) in 1927. Later, in the government of Engelbert Dollfuss (1932–34) he was first appointed minister of justice (1932), then minister of education (1933); and after Dollfuss' assassination (1934), he was named federal chancellor. He eliminated the threats to his government posed by the Heimwehr, a national paramilitary defense force led by his vice chancellor, Ernst Rüdiger, Fürst von Starhemberg, whom he forced out of office in May 1936. After disbanding the Heimwehr in October, Schuschnigg became the leader of the Fatherland Front, a coalition of right-wing parties. He strengthened ties with the fascist Italian government and strongly propagated the idea of Austria as a second German state. However, Schuschnigg's subsequent concessions to Hitler on the status of Austrian Nazis, starting with the signing of an agreement in July 1936, represented the beginning of the end of Austrian independence.

      After a humiliating capitulation to Hitler at Berchtesgaden (February 1938), he determined to reassert national independence through a plebiscite to be held on March 13. But his plans were effectively negated by the German invasion and annexation of Austria (Anschluss), March 11–13.

      Schuschnigg had been forced to resign on March 11 and was imprisoned by the Nazis shortly thereafter. He was freed only after World War II (May 1945). He lived and taught in the United States (1948–67), after which he returned to Austria where he wrote Im Kampf Gegen Hitler (1969; The Brutal Takeover, 1971).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Schuschnigg, Kurt von — (14 dic. 1897, Riva, lago de Garda, Trento, Austria Hungría–18 nov. 1977, Mutters, cerca de Innsbruck, Austria). Político y canciller austríaco (1934–38). Elegido al parlamento en 1927, participó en el gobierno de Engelbert Dollfuss como ministro …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • SCHUSCHNIGG (K. von) — SCHUSCHNIGG KURT VON (1897 1977) D’une vieille famille de l’aristocratie autrichienne attachée aux traditions catholiques, Kurt von Schuschnigg est avocat à Innsbruck avant de fonder un mouvement nationaliste après la Première Guerre mondiale.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Kurt von Schuschnigg — Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg, bis 1919: Edler von Schuschnigg (* 14. Dezember 1897 in Riva del Garda bei Trient; † 18. November 1977 in Mutters bei Innsbruck) war während der Zeit des austrofaschistischen Ständestaates von Juli 1934 bis… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Kurt Von Schuschnigg — Kurt Alois Josef Johann von Schuschnigg (14 décembre 1897 18 novembre 1977), chancelier fédéral d Autriche du 25 juillet 1934 au 11 mars 1938. Sommaire 1 Un aristocrate …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kurt von Schuschnigg — en 1936. Mandats 15e chancelier fédéral d Autriche …   Wikipédia en Français

  • von — /von/; Ger. /fawn/, unstressed /feuhn/, prep. from; of (used in German and Austrian personal names, originally to indicate place of origin and later to indicate nobility): Paul von Hindenburg. * * * (as used in expressions) Friedrich Leopold… …   Universalium

  • Schuschnigg — (Kurt von) (1897 1977) homme politique autrichien. Chancelier chrétien social (1934), il tenta d éviter l Anschluss. Hitler obtint sa démission (11 mars 1938) et le fit déporter à Dachau (1938 1945) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Kurt — /kerrt/, n. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Cobain Kurt Eisner Kurt Gödel Kurt Jooss Kurt Lewin Kurt Schleicher Kurt von Schuschnigg Kurt von Schwitters Kurt Vonnegut Kurt Jr. Waldheim Kurt Weill Kurt Julian * * * …   Universalium

  • Kurt — (as used in expressions) Cobain, Kurt Eisner, Kurt Gödel, Kurt Jooss, Kurt Lewin, Kurt Schleicher, Kurt von Schuschnigg, Kurt von Schwitters, Kurt …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Kurt Schuschnigg — Schuschnigg 1936 Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg, 1898–1919 amtlich Edler von Schuschnigg (* 14. Dezember 1897 in Riva del Garda, Österreich Ungarn; † 18. November 1977 in Mutters) war während der Zeit des von ihm als Justizminister… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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