Schrödinger, Erwin

born Aug. 12, 1887, Vienna, Austria
died Jan. 4, 1961, Vienna

Austrian physicist.

He taught physics in Zürich (1921–27) and Berlin (1927–33), then left Germany, objecting to the persecution of Jews. He settled in Ireland, where he joined the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (1940–56). He made fundamental contributions to quantum mechanics, and he shared a 1933 Nobel Prize with P.A.M. Dirac for his development in 1926 of the wave equation now called the Schrödinger equation. In addition to his scientific research, he made contributions to philosophy and the history of science; his books include What Is Life? (1944), Nature and the Greeks (1954), and My View of the World (1961).

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▪ Austrian physicist
born Aug. 12, 1887, Vienna, Austria
died Jan. 4, 1961, Vienna

      Austrian theoretical physicist (atom) who contributed to the wave theory (wave motion) of matter and to other fundamentals of quantum mechanics. He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics with the British physicist P.A.M. Dirac (Dirac, P.A.M.).

      Schrödinger entered the University of Vienna in 1906 and obtained his doctorate in 1910, upon which he accepted a research post at the university's Second Physics Institute. He saw military service in World War I and then went to the University of Zürich in 1921, where he remained for the next six years. There, in a six-month period in 1926, at the age of 39, a remarkably late age for original work by theoretical physicists, he produced the papers that gave the foundations of quantum wave mechanics. In those papers he described his partial differential equation that is the basic equation of quantum mechanics and bears the same relation to the mechanics of the atom as Newton's equations of motion bear to planetary astronomy. Adopting a proposal made by Louis de Broglie in 1924 that particles of matter have a dual nature and in some situations act like waves, Schrödinger introduced a theory describing the behaviour of such a system by a wave equation that is now known as the Schrödinger equation. The solutions to Schrödinger's equation, unlike the solutions to Newton's equations, are wave functions that can only be related to the probable occurrence of physical events. The definite and readily visualized sequence of events of the planetary orbits of Newton is, in quantum mechanics, replaced by the more abstract notion of probability. (This aspect of the quantum theory made Schrödinger and several other physicists profoundly unhappy, and he devoted much of his later life to formulating philosophical objections to the generally accepted interpretation of the theory that he had done so much to create.)

      In 1927 Schrödinger accepted an invitation to succeed Max Planck, the inventor of the quantum hypothesis, at the University of Berlin, and he joined an extremely distinguished faculty that included Albert Einstein. He remained at the university until 1933, at which time he reached the decision that he could no longer live in a country in which the persecution of Jews had become a national policy. He then began a seven-year odyssey that took him to Austria, Great Britain, Belgium, the Pontifical Academy of Science in Rome, and—finally in 1940—the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, founded under the influence of Premier Eamon de Valera, who had been a mathematician before turning to politics. Schrödinger remained in Ireland for the next 15 years, doing research both in physics and in the philosophy and history of science. During this period he wrote What Is Life? (1944), an attempt to show how quantum physics can be used to explain the stability of genetic structure. Although much of what Schrödinger had to say in this book has been modified and amplified by later developments in molecular biology, his book remains one of the most useful and profound introductions to the subject. In 1956 Schrödinger retired and returned to Vienna as professor emeritus at the university.

      Of all of the physicists of his generation, Schrödinger stands out because of his extraordinary intellectual versatility. He was at home in the philosophy and literature of all of the Western languages, and his popular scientific writing in English, which he had learned as a child, is among the best of its kind. His study of ancient Greek science and philosophy, summarized in his Nature and the Greeks (1954), gave him both an admiration for the Greek invention of the scientific view of the world and a skepticism toward the relevance of science as a unique tool with which to unravel the ultimate mysteries of human existence. Schrödinger's own metaphysical outlook, as expressed in his last book, Meine Weltansicht (1961; My View of the World), closely paralleled the mysticism of the Vedānta.

      Because of his exceptional gifts, Schrödinger was able in the course of his life to make significant contributions to nearly all branches of science and philosophy, an almost unique accomplishment at a time when the trend was toward increasing technical specialization in these disciplines.

Jeremy Bernstein Ed.

Additional Reading
William T. Scott, Erwin Schrödinger: An Introduction to His Writings (1967), is a good critical study of Schrödinger and his works. Schrödinger's life and career are chronicled in Walter Moore, Schrödinger: Life and Thought (1989), also published in an abridged version, A Life of Erwin Schrödinger (1994). C.W. Kilmister (ed.), Schrödinger: Centenary Celebration of a Polymath (1987), a set of papers, explores Schrödinger's scientific legacy.

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Universalium. 2010.

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