Saint Lawrence, Gulf of
- Deep gulf of the Atlantic Ocean off eastern Canada.It has an area of about 60,000 sq mi (155,000 sq km). It touches the shores of half of the provinces of Canada, providing a gateway to the interior of the entire North American continent. Its boundaries are the maritime estuary at the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, the Strait of Belle Isle between Newfoundland and the mainland, and Cabot Strait. It has many islands, including Prince Edward Island and the Magdalen Islands.
* * *body of water covering about 60,000 square miles (155,000 square km) at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. It fringes the shores of half the provinces of Canada and is a gateway to the interior of the entire North American (North America) continent. Its name is not entirely accurate, for in a hydrologic context the gulf has to be considered more as a sea bordering the North American continent than as simply a river mouth. Its boundaries may be taken as the maritime estuary at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, in the vicinity of Anticosti Island, on the west; the Strait of Belle Isle between Newfoundland and the mainland, to the north; and Cabot Strait, separating Newfoundland from the Nova Scotian peninsula, on the south.The gulf is also a relief phenomenon, for the underlying topography is in fact made up of submerged portions of the northern end of the Appalachian mountain (Appalachian Mountains) range, as well as of the southern periphery of the vast, ancient rock mass known as the Canadian Shield. The topography of the floor of the gulf can be subdivided into several sections. First of all, there are the deepest zones: the St. Lawrence Channel and the Mingan Passage, whose orientation is toward the southeast, and the Eskimo Channel, running to the southwest. Together, these channels occupy approximately one-quarter of the total area of the gulf. Then there are the submarine platforms, often less than 165 feet (50 m) in depth, of which the most important, known as the Acadian Platform, occupies a large semicircle between the Gaspé Peninsula and Cape Breton. The relief of this area is not at all uniform because it includes depressions such as the Chaleurs Trough, shelves such as the Bradelle Bank, the Northumberland Strait, and above-water sections such as Prince Edward Island. On the far side of the axial St. Lawrence Trough are three northern elongated platforms: the Anticosti Platform, near the island of the same name; another platform that skirts the low northern coast of the gulf; and finally, one lying between the Eskimo Channel and Newfoundland. The reefs on these surfaces, coupled with the hazards of fog and ice, have caused a large number of shipwrecks.The body of water constituting the gulf is replenished not only by the local rainfall (35.5 inches [900 mm] annually at Cap-aux-Meules in the Magdalen Islands) but also from three great “gateways.” The first of these, the maritime estuary, discharges approximately 500,000 cubic feet (14,000 cubic m) per second of cool, soft water, and at ebb tide, a considerably larger volume of seawater, together with a formidable quantity of ice in the winter months. In the Strait of Belle Isle (Belle Isle, Strait of), which forms the second entry, the oceanographic situation is very complex. No less than seven types of water have been distinguished there, with temperatures varying from 29° F (-2° C) to 52° F (11° C) and a salinity fluctuating from 27 to 34.5 parts per thousand. The third gateway, Cabot Strait, is by far the most important; through it the Atlantic and Arctic waters enter (having already passed Newfoundland to the east), and it is through here that the major proportion of water and ice leaves the gulf.The principal current consists of a peripheral counterclockwise circulation, which hugs the platforms of the northeast and then enters the estuary. This penetrates as far inland as the Pointe des Monts and even reaches as far as the entry of the Saguenay River into the St. Lawrence just over a hundred miles from the city of Quebec. This current continues under the name of the Gaspé Current, having three branches between the Honguedo and Cabot straits.This circulation, as well as a weak tide, tends to mix the waters of the gulf, but they remain stratified. In the centre of the gulf are three superimposed levels: the deep stratum (38° F [3.5° C] and 33.5 parts per thousand salinity), the intermediate stratum with a depth of 165 feet (50 m) (33° F [0.5° C] and 32.5 parts per thousand salinity), and the surface stratum, which is less salty and undergoes strong seasonal thermal variations.Ice floes constitute one of the most prominent characteristics of the gulf. ice formation is delayed because of the salinity, the latent heat of the mass of water, and the slow passage of upstream ice; thus ice is not abundant in the gulf before mid-February. The thaw, often late, permits the Cabot Strait to have normal maritime traffic at least a month before the Strait of Belle Isle.
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Saint Lawrence,Gulf of — Saint Lawrence (sānt), Gulf of An arm of the northwest Atlantic Ocean off southeast Canada bordered by New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Quebec. It is connected with the Atlantic by Cabot Strait and the Straits of Canso and Belle Isle … Universalium
Saint Lawrence River and Seaway — ▪ river, North America Introduction hydrographic system of east central North America. It connects the North River (source of the St. Louis River, in the U.S. state of Minnesota, which flows into Lake Superior) with Cabot Strait, leading into… … Universalium
Gulf of Saint Lawrence — (French: golfe du Saint Laurent ), the world s largest estuary, is the outlet of North America s Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.The river flows into the gulf through the Jacques Cartier Strait between the Côte… … Wikipedia
Saint Lawrence (disambiguation) — Saint Lawrence or Saint Laurence (also St. Lawrence , St Laurence ) is a title applied to many things named after Saint Lawrence, the 3rd century Christian martyr. Saint Laurent is the French equivalent and San Lorenzo is the Italian and Spanish… … Wikipedia
Saint Lawrence River — Infobox River | river name = Saint Lawrence River caption = Map of the St. Lawrence/Great Lakes Watershed origin = Lake Ontario mouth = Gulf of Saint Lawrence/Atlantic Ocean basin countries = Canada (Ontario, Quebec) United States (Illinois,… … Wikipedia
Saint Lawrence River — River, southern Quebec and southeastern Ontario, Canada. It flows northeast out of Lake Ontario into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and is about 760 mi (1,225 km) long. It passes through the Thousand Islands and for about 120 mi (195 km) forms the… … Universalium
Saint Lawrence — noun 1. Roman martyr; supposedly Lawrence was ordered by the police to give up the church s treasure and when he responded by presenting the poor people of Rome he was roasted to death on a gridiron (died in 258) • Syn: ↑Lawrence, ↑St. Lawrence,… … Useful english dictionary
Saint Lawrence River — noun a North American river; flows into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the North Atlantic • Syn: ↑Saint Lawrence, ↑St. Lawrence, ↑St. Lawrence River • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Saint Lawrence — geographical name river 760 miles (1223 kilometers) E Canada in Ontario & Quebec bordering on the United States in New York, flowing from Lake Ontario NE into the Atlantic, & forming at its mouth a wide bay (the Gulf of Saint Lawrence) … New Collegiate Dictionary
Gulf of Saint Lawrence — noun an arm of the northwest Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern coast of Canada • Syn: ↑Gulf of St. Lawrence • Instance Hypernyms: ↑gulf • Part Holonyms: ↑Atlantic, ↑Atlantic Ocean … Useful english dictionary