Ryle, Sir Martin

born Sept. 27, 1918, Brighton, Sussex, Eng.
died Oct. 14, 1984, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

British radio astronomer.

After receiving a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Oxford, he helped design radar equipment during World War II. He was an early investigator of extraterrestrial radio signals. Ryle guided the Cambridge radio astronomy group in the production of radio source catalogs. The Third Cambridge Catalogue (1959) helped lead to the discovery of the first quasar. To map distant radio sources, he developed a technique called aperture synthesis, which provided tremendously increased resolving power for radio telescopes and was used to locate the first pulsar. In 1974 he and Antony Hewish shared a Nobel Prize.

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▪ British astronomer
born Sept. 27, 1918, Brighton, Sussex, Eng.
died Oct. 14, 1984, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire

      British radio astronomer (radio and radar astronomy) who developed revolutionary radio telescope systems and used them for accurate location of weak radio sources. With improved equipment, he observed the most distant known galaxies of the universe. Ryle and Antony Hewish (Hewish, Antony) shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974, the first Nobel prize awarded in recognition of astronomical research.

      Ryle was the nephew of the philosopher Gilbert Ryle. After earning a degree in physics at the University of Oxford in 1939, he worked with the Telecommunications Research Establishment on the design of radar equipment during World War II. After the war he received a fellowship at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge, where he became an early investigator of extraterrestrial radio sources and developed advanced radio telescopes using the principles of radar. While serving as university lecturer in physics at Cambridge from 1948 to 1959, he became director of the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory (1957), and he became professor of radio astronomy in 1959. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1952, was knighted in 1966, and succeeded Sir Richard Woolley as Astronomer Royal (1972–82).

 Ryle's early work centred on studies of radio waves from the Sun, sunspots, and a few nearby stars. He guided the Cambridge radio astronomy group in the production of radio source catalogues. The Third Cambridge Catalogue (1959) helped lead to the discovery of the first quasi-stellar object ( quasar).

      To map such distant radio sources as quasars, Ryle developed a technique called aperture synthesis. By using two radio telescopes and changing the distance between them, he obtained data that, upon computer analysis, provided tremendously increased resolving power. In the mid-1960s Ryle put into operation two telescopes on rails that at the maximum distance of 1.6 km (1 mile) provided results comparable to a single telescope 1.6 km in diameter. This telescope system was used to locate the first pulsar, which had been discovered in 1967 by Hewish and Jocelyn Bell of the Cambridge group.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Ryle , Sir Martin — (1918–1984) British radio astronomer Ryle, the son of a physician, was born at Brighton and studied at Oxford University. He spent the war with the Telecommunications Research Establishment in Dorset working on radar. After the war he received a… …   Scientists

  • Ryle, Sir Martin — (27 sep. 1918, Brighton, Sussex, Inglaterra 14 oct. 1984, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire). Radioastrónomo británico. Después de recibir su doctorado en física en la Universidad de Oxford, ayudó a diseñar equipos de radar durante la segunda guerra… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Martin Ryle —  Pour l’article homonyme, voir Gilbert Ryle.  Sir Martin Ryle (27 septembre 1918 à Brighton – 14 octobre 1984 à Cambridge) était un radioastronome britannique qui développa des systèmes révolutionnaires de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • sir — /serr/, n. 1. a respectful or formal term of address used to a man: No, sir. 2. (cap.) the distinctive title of a knight or baronet: Sir Walter Scott. 3. (cap.) a title of respect for some notable personage of ancient times: Sir Pandarus of Troy …   Universalium

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  • Martin — ► sustantivo masculino 1 ZOOLOGÍA Martinete, ave zancuda. FRASEOLOGÍA martín pescador ZOOLOGÍA Ave pequeña de cabeza gruesa, plumaje azul metálico y naranja, pico fuerte y patas cortas, que vive cerca de los ríos y pesca peces con gran habilidad …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Martín — ► sustantivo masculino 1 ZOOLOGÍA Martinete, ave zancuda. FRASEOLOGÍA martín pescador ZOOLOGÍA Ave pequeña de cabeza gruesa, plumaje azul metálico y naranja, pico fuerte y patas cortas, que vive cerca de los ríos y pesca peces con gran habilidad …   Enciclopedia Universal

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