Root, Elihu

born Feb. 15, 1845, Clinton, N.Y., U.S.
died Feb. 7, 1937, New York, N.Y.

U.S. lawyer and diplomat.

He became a U.S. attorney for the southern district of New York in 1883. He served as secretary of war from 1899 to 1904. After the Spanish-American War, he set up a civil government in Puerto Rico and organized U.S. control of the Philippines. As secretary of state (1905–09) under Theodore Roosevelt, he concluded treaties with Japan and persuaded Latin American states to participate in the second Hague conference in 1907 (see Hague Conventions). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1912. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1909 to 1915. A supporter of the League of Nations, he helped frame the statute that established the International Court of Justice.

* * *

▪ United States statesman
born Feb. 15, 1845, Clinton, N.Y., U.S.
died Feb. 7, 1937, New York, N.Y.
 American lawyer and statesman, winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1912.

      Root received his law degree from New York University in 1867 and became a leading corporation lawyer. As U.S. attorney for the southern district of New York (1883–85) he came into close contact with Theodore Roosevelt (Roosevelt, Theodore), then a leader in New York Republican politics, and became Roosevelt's friend and legal adviser.

      As secretary of war in President William McKinley's (and, after McKinley's assassination, Roosevelt's) cabinet (1899–1903), Root worked out governmental arrangements for the former Spanish areas then under U.S. control as a result of the Spanish-American War. He was the primary author of the Foraker Act (1900), which provided for civil government in Puerto Rico. He established U.S. authority in the Philippines and wrote the instructions for an American governing commission sent there in 1900. He also effected a reorganization of the U.S. Army, established the principle of rotation of officers from staff to line, and created the Army War College in 1901.

      Root left the cabinet in 1904 but returned as secretary of state the following year during Roosevelt's second term and remained until 1909. On a tour of South America (1906) he persuaded Latin-American states to participate in the Second Hague Peace Conference, and he negotiated agreements by which Japan (Gentlemen's Agreement) undertook to control its immigration to the United States and to arbitrate certain kinds of disputes. With the Japanese ambassador to the United States, Takahira Kogoro, Root negotiated the Root-Takahira Agreement (1908), under whose terms Japan promised to respect the Open Door Policy in China. Root also concluded treaties of arbitration with more than 20 nations. Later, as chief counsel for the United States before the Hague Tribunal, he settled the controversy between the United States and Great Britain over the North Atlantic coast fisheries. For these and other contributions to peace and general world harmony he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.

      From 1909 to 1915, as a Republican senator from New York, Root sided with the William Howard Taft wing of the party. After the outbreak of World War I in Europe, he openly supported the Allies and was critical of President Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality. He was a leading Republican supporter of international law and served on the commission of jurists that established the Permanent Court of International Justice (1920–21). President Warren Harding appointed him one of four U.S. delegates to the International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments (1921–22). In his later years Root worked closely with Andrew Carnegie (Carnegie, Andrew) on programs for international peace and for the advancement of science.

Additional Reading
Biographies are Philip C. Jessup, Elihu Root, 2 vol. (1938, reissued 1964); and Richard William Leopold, Elihu Root and the Conservative Tradition (1954).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Root,Elihu — Root (ro͞ot), Elihu. 1845 1937. American lawyer and public official who served as U.S. secretary of war (1899 1904), secretary of state (1905 1909), and senator from New York (1909 1915). He won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize. * * * …   Universalium

  • Root, Elihu — (1845–1937)    An American lawyer and statesman who played a prominent role in the development of a legal and administrative framework for the colonial empire of the United States. During his term as secretary of war (1899–1904), Root laid the… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Root, Elihu — ► (1845 1937) Político estadounidense. Desarrolló las ideas americanistas. Fue premio Nobel de la Paz en 1912. * * * (15 feb. 1845, Clinton, N.Y., EE.UU.–7 feb. 1937, Nueva York, N.Y.). Abogado y diplomático estadounidense. En 1883 fue fiscal del …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Elihu Root — (* 15. Februar 1845 in Clinton, New York); † 7. Februar 1937 in New York City) war ein US amerikanischer Jurist und Politiker. 1912 erhielt er den Friedensnobelpreis für sein stetes Bemühen um Ausgleich der Interessen und die Formulierung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Elihu Root — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Elihu Root Elihu Root (n. Clinton, Nueva York, 15 de febrero de 1845 – † Nueva York, 7 de febrero de 1937). Político estadounid …   Wikipedia Español

  • Elihu Root — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Root. Elihu Root Elihu Root …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Elihu Root House — Infobox nrhp | name =Elihu Root House nrhp type = nhl locmapin = New York caption = location= 101 College Hill Road, Clinton, New York lat degrees = 43 | lat minutes = 2 | lat seconds = 58.97 | lat direction = N long degrees = 75 | long minutes …   Wikipedia

  • Root — En sistemas operativos del tipo Unix, root es el nombre convencional de la cuenta de usuario que posee todos los derechos en todos los modos (mono o multi usuario). root es también llamado superusuario. Normalmente esta es la cuenta de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Elihu B. Washburne — Elihu Benjamin Washburne Elihu Benjamin Washburne (* 23. September 1816 in Livermore, Maine; † 23. Oktober 1887 in Chicago) war ein US amerikanischer Staatsmann. Leben Washburne stammt aus einer politisch engagierten Familie (auch drei seiner… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Elihu — can refer to several things.People*Elihu, a friend of Job appearing in the Book of Job. *Elihu Burritt (1810 ndash;1879), a philanthropist, linguist, and social activist. *Elihu Harris, mayor of Oakland, California, U.S. *Elihu Emory Jackson, a… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.