Ronsard, Pierre de

born Sept. 11, 1524, La Possonnière, near Couture, France
died Dec. 27, 1585, Saint-Cosme, near Tours

French poet.

Of a noble family, Ronsard turned to scholarship and literature after an illness left him partially deaf. He was the foremost poet of La Pléiade, a literary group that used Classical and Italian models to elevate the French language as a medium for literary expression. He was recognized in his lifetime as a prince of poets; among his diverse works were Odes (1550), inspired by Horace; Les Amours (1552); the unfinished La Franciade (1572), in imitation of Virgil's Aeneid, meant to be the national epic; and Sonnets pour Hélène, now perhaps his most famous collection. He perfected and established the alexandrine as the classic form in French for scathing satire, elegiac tenderness, and tragic passion.

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▪ French poet
born , Sept. 11, 1524, La Possonnière, near Couture, Fr.
died Dec. 27, 1585, Saint-Cosme, near Tours
 poet, chief among the French Renaissance group of poets known as La Pléiade.

      Ronsard was a younger son of a noble family of the county of Vendôme. He entered the service of the royal family as a page in 1536 and accompanied Princess Madeleine to Edinburgh after her marriage to James V of Scotland. On his return to France two years later, a court appointment or a military or diplomatic career seemed to be open before him, and in 1540 he accompanied the diplomat Lazare de Baïf on a mission to an international conference at Haguenau in Alsace. An illness contracted on this expedition left him partially deaf, however, and his ambitions were deflected to scholarship and literature. For someone in his position, the church provided the only future, and he accordingly took minor orders, which entitled him to hold ecclesiastical benefices, though he was never an ordained priest. A period of enthusiastic study of the classics followed his convalescence; during this time he learned Greek from the brilliant tutor Jean Dorat (Dorat, Jean), read all the Greek and Latin poetry then known, and gained some familiarity with Italian poetry. With a group of fellow students he formed a literary school that came to be called La Pléiade, in emulation of the seven ancient Greek poets of Alexandria: its aim was to produce French poetry that would stand comparison with the verse of classical antiquity.

      The title of his first collection of poems, Odes (4 books, 1550), emphasizes that he was attempting a French counterpart to the odes of the ancient Roman poet Horace. In Les Amours (1552) he also proved his skill as an exponent of the Italian canzoniere, animating the compliments to his beloved, entreaties, and lamentations traditional to this poetic form by the vehemence of his manner and the wealth of his imagery. Always responsive to new literary influences, he found fresh inspiration in the recently discovered verse of the Greek poet Anacreon (6th century BC). The more playful touch encouraged by this model is to be felt in the Bocage (“Grove”) of poetry of 1554 and in the Meslanges (“Miscellany”) of that year, which contain some of his most exquisite nature poems, and in the Continuation des amours and Nouvelles Continuations, addressed to a country girl, Marie. In 1555 he began to write a series of long poems, such as the “Hymne du Ciel” (“Hymn of the Sky”), celebrating natural phenomena, abstract ideas like death or justice, or gods and heroes of antiquity; these poems, published as Hymnes (following the 3rd-century-BC Greek poet Callimachus, who had inspired them), contain passages of stirring eloquence and vivid description, though few of them can hold the modern reader's interest from beginning to end. Reminiscences of his boyhood inspired other poems, such as his “Complainte contre fortune,” published in the second book of the Meslanges (1559), which contains a haunting description of his solitary wanderings as a child in the woods and the discovery of his poetic vocation. This poem is also notable for a celebrated denunciation of the colonization of the New World, whose people he imagined to be noble savages living in an unspoiled state of nature comparable to his idealized memories of childhood.

      The outbreak of the religious wars found him committed to an extreme royalist and Catholic position, and he drew upon himself the hostility of the Protestants. To this period belong the Discours des misères de ce temps (1562; “Discourse on the Miseries of These Times”) and other Discours attacking his opponents, whom he dismissed as traitors and hypocrites with ever-increasing bitterness. Yet he also wrote much court poetry during this period, encouraged by the young king Charles IX, a sincere admirer, and, on the king's marriage to Elizabeth of Austria in 1571, he was commissioned to compose verses and plan the scheme of decorations for the state entry through the city of Paris. If he was by now in some sense the poet laureate of France, he made slow progress with La Franciade, which he intended to be the national epic; this somewhat halfhearted imitation of Virgil's great Latin epic, the Aeneid, was abandoned after the death of Charles IX, the four completed books being published in 1572. After the accession of Henry III, who did not favour Ronsard so much, he lived in semi-retirement, though his creativity was undiminished. The collected edition of his works published in 1578 included some remarkable new works, among them the so-called “Elegy Against the Woodcutters of Gâtine” (“Contre les bucherons de la forêt de Gastine”), lamenting the destruction of the woods near his old home; a sequel to Les Amours de Marie; and the Sonnets pour Hélène. In the latter, which is now perhaps the most famous of his collections, the veteran poet demonstrates his power to revivify the stylized patterns of courtly love poetry. Even in his last illness, Ronsard still wrote verse that is sophisticated in form and rich with classical allusions. His posthumous collection, Les Derniers Vers (“The Final Verses”), poignantly expresses the anguish of the incurable invalid in nights spent alone in pain, longing for sleep, watching for the dawn, and praying for death.

      Ronsard perfected the 12-syllable, or alexandrine, line of French verse, hitherto despised as too long and pedestrian, and established it as the classic medium for scathing satire, elegiac tenderness, and tragic passion. During his lifetime he was recognized in France as the prince of poets and a figure of national significance. This prominence, scarcely paralleled until Victor Hugo in the 19th century, faded into relative neglect in the 17th and 18th centuries; but his reputation was reinstated by the critic C.-A. Sainte-Beuve (Sainte-Beuve, Charles-Augustin), and it has remained secure.

      To the modern reader Ronsard is perhaps most appealing when celebrating his native countryside, reflecting on the brevity of youth and beauty, or voicing the various states of unrequited love, though he is also effective when identifying himself imaginatively with some classical mythological character and when expressing sentiments of fiery patriotism or deep humanity. He was a master of lyric themes and forms, and his poetry remains attractive to composers; some of his odes, such as “Mignonne, allons voir si la rose . . . ,” were set to music repeatedly and have become as familiar to the general public in France as folk songs.

Annette Elizabeth Armstrong

Additional Reading
Claude Binet, Discours de la vie de Pierre de Ronsard (1586), is the basis of all biographical study of Ronsard; it is best read in the critical edition by Paul Laumonier, La vie de P. de Ronsard (1909, reprinted 1969). Paul Laumonier, Ronsard, poète lyrique: étude historique et littéraire, 2nd ed. rev. and corrected (1923), is a complete survey of the themes and forms used in Ronsard's lyric poetry. Pierre de Nolhac, Ronsard et l'humanisme (1921, reprinted 1966), examines Ronsard's relations with classical scholars. Morris Bishop, Ronsard, Prince of Poets (1940, reissued 1959), is a useful biography.Studies in English of important aspects of Ronsard's poetry include: Dudley Butler Wilson, Ronsard, Poet of Nature (1961); Donald Stone, Ronsard's Sonnet Cycles: A Study in Tone and Vision (1966); Elizabeth Armstrong, Ronsard and the Age of Gold (1968); Isidore Silver, The Intellectual Evolution of Ronsard, 2 vol. (1969–73), and Three Ronsard Studies (1978); and Malcolm Quainton, Ronsard's Ordered Chaos: Visions of Flux and Stability in the Poetry of Ronsard (1980). A complete bibliography of Ronsard up to about 1950 may be found in Alexandre Cioranescu, Bibliographie de la littérature française du seizième siècle, pp. 609–625 (1959, reprinted 1975).

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Universalium. 2010.

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