Purkinje, Jan Evangelista

born Dec. 17, 1787, Libochovice, Bohemia
died July 28, 1869, Prague, Czech.

Czech experimental physiologist.

He discovered the Purkinje effect (as light decreases, red objects appear to fade faster than blue ones), Purkinje cells (large branching neurons in the cerebellum), and Purkinje fibres (which conduct impulses from the natural pacemaker throughout the heart). At Breslau he created the world's first independent physiology department and first official physiology laboratory. He introduced the term protoplasm, devised new methods for preparing microscope samples, discovered the skin's sweat glands and the nucleus of the unripe ovum, recognized the uniqueness of fingerprints, and noted that pancreatic extracts digest protein.

Purkinje

CTK-Czechoslovak News Agency

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▪ Czech physiologist
(German), Czech  Jan Evangelista Purkynë 
born Dec. 17, 1787, Libochovice, Bohemia [now in Czech Republic]
died July 28, 1869, Prague
 pioneer Czech experimental physiologist whose investigations in the fields of histology, embryology, and pharmacology helped create a modern understanding of the eye and vision, brain and heart function, mammalian reproduction, and the composition of cells.

      Purkinje's research at the University of Prague (M.D., 1819), where he later served as professor of physiology (1850–69), led to his discovery of a phenomenon known as the Purkinje effect (as light intensity decreases, red objects are perceived to fade faster than blue objects of the same brightness). His studies of human vision attracted the attention of the German poet J.W. von Goethe, who befriended the Bohemian student and may have been instrumental in obtaining for him the chair of physiology and pathology (1823–50) at the University of Breslau, Prussia. There Purkinje created the world's first independent department of physiology (1839) and the first official physiological laboratory, known as the Physiological Institute (1842).

      A founder of laboratory training in connection with university teaching in Germany, Purkinje is best known for his discovery of large nerve cells with many branching extensions found in the cortex of the cerebellum of the brain (Purkinje cells; 1837) and of the fibrous tissue that conducts the pacemaker stimulus along the inside walls of the ventricles to all parts of the heart (Purkinje fibres; 1839). In describing young animal embryos, he introduced protoplasm as a scientific term.

      First to use the microtome (a mechanical device for slicing thin tissue sections), glacial acetic acid, potassium bichromate, and Canada balsam in the preparation of tissue samples for microscopic examination, Purkinje also described the experimental effects on humans of camphor, opium, belladonna, and turpentine (1829) and the visual images produced by poisoning with digitalis and belladonna. He discovered the sweat glands of the skin (1833) and the germinal vesicle, or nucleus of the unripe ovum, that now bears his name (1825), recognized fingerprints as a means of identification (1823), and noted the protein-digesting power of pancreatic extracts (1836).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Purkinje, Jan Evangelista — (17 dic. 1787, Libochovice, Bohemia– 28 jul. 1869, Praga, Checoslovaquia). Fisiólogo experimental checo. Descubrió el efecto de Purkinje (a medida que la luz disminuye, los objetos rojos se desvanecen más rápido que los azules), las células de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Пуркинье Ян Евангелиста / Purkinje, Jan Evangelista — (1787 1869). Пуркинье, известный исследователь сенсорных элементов в русле феноменологической традиции, описал, как из рассеивающейся с рассветом темноты появляются видимые цвета …   Психологическая энциклопедия

  • Jan Evangelista Purkinje — Jan Evangelista Purkyně. Jan Evangelista Purkyně (* 17. Dezember 1787 in Libochovice bei Leitmeritz; † 28. Juli 1869 in Prag) war ein böhmischer Ordenslehrer, Physiologe und Pathologe, Politiker und – als Schüler – Sänger. Unter der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jan Evangelista Purkyne — Jan Evangelista Purkyně. Jan Evangelista Purkyně (* 17. Dezember 1787 in Libochovice bei Leitmeritz; † 28. Juli 1869 in Prag) war ein böhmischer Ordenslehrer, Physiologe und Pathologe, Politiker und – als Schüler – Sänger. Unter der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jan Evangelista Purkyně — Jan Evangel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jan Evangelista Purkyně — Jan Evangelista Purkyně. Jan Evangelista Purkyně (también escrito Johannes Evangelista Purkinje) (* 17 de diciembre de 1787 28 de julio de 1869) fue un anatomista, fisiólogo, botánico checo. Purkyně nació en Libochovice, Bohemia. En 1819 se… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jan Evangelista Purkyně — (IPA2|ˈjan ˈɛvaŋɡɛlɪsta ˈpurkɪɲɛ) (also written Johannes Evangelists Purkinje, Audio|Cs Jan Evangelista Purkyne.ogg|listen) (17 December 1787 28 July 1869) was a Czech anatomist, patriot, and physiologist.BiographyPurkyně was born in Libochovice …   Wikipedia

  • Jan Evangelista Purkinje — Jan (ou Johannes) Evangelista Purkinje, né à Libochovice près de Litomerice le 17 décembre 1787 et mort à Prague le 28 juillet 1869, est un anatomiste et neurophysiologiste tchèque. Il apporta aux …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jan Evangelista Purkinje — noun Bohemian physiologist remembered for his discovery of Purkinje cells and the Purkinje network (1787 1869) • Syn: ↑Purkinje, ↑Johannes Evangelista Purkinje • Instance Hypernyms: ↑physiologist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Jan Evangelista Purkinje — n. Johannes Evangelists Purkinje (1789 1869), Bohemian physiologist who discovered the Purkinje cells and the Purkinje network …   English contemporary dictionary

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