Pius X, Saint
orig. Giuseppe Melchiorre Sartoborn June 2, 1835, Riese, Venetia, Austrian Empiredied Aug. 20, 1914, Rome, Italy; canonized May 29, 1954; feast day August 21Pope (1903–14).Born in the Italian region of Venetia, he became bishop of Mantua in 1884 and patriarch of Venice in 1893. He was elected pope in 1903 and soon became known both for his piety and for his staunch religious and political conservatism. Pius suppressed the Catholic intellectual movement known as Modernism and opposed the political movement for social reform known as Christian Democracy. He worked to organize the laity for collaboration in the church's apostolic work, and he reformed the Catholic liturgy. His decision to systematize canon law led to the publication of the new code in 1917, which became effective in 1918.
* * *▪ popeoriginal name Giuseppe Melchiorre Sartoborn June 2, 1835, Riese, Venetia, Austrian Empire [now in Italy]died Aug. 20, 1914, Rome, Italy; canonized May 29, 1954; feast day August 21Italian pope from 1903 to 1914, whose staunch political and religious conservatism dominated the early 20th-century church.Ordained in 1858, he became a parish priest in the Italian region of Venetia. Pope Leo XIII made him bishop of Mantua (1884) and in 1893 cardinal and patriarch of Venice. He was elected pope on Aug. 4, 1903.Tepid toward Leo's social reforms, Pius decided to concentrate on apostolic problems and to make the defense of Roman Catholicism his cause. Three aspects of his policy particularly aroused bitter controversy: the repression of Modernism, a contemporary intellectual movement seeking to reinterpret traditional Catholic teaching in the light of 19th-century philosophical, historical, and psychological theories; his reaction against Christian Democrats; and his attitude toward separation of church and state in France.Because Modernism tended to ignore certain traditional values in order to achieve its ends, Pius placed several Modernist books on the Index of Forbidden Books and issued (1907) the decree Lamentabili Sane Exitu (On a Deplorable Outcome) and the encyclical Pascendi Dominici Gregis (Feeding the Lord's Flocks), rejecting Modernist teachings and suggesting remedies to extirpate it. He also urged immediate compliance with his strict censorship program. On Sept. 1, 1910, he ordered that all teachers in seminaries and clerics before ordination take an oath denouncing Modernism and supporting Lamentabili and Pascendi.Although he took the first tentative steps to improve relations with liberal Italy and allowed Catholics for the first time to vote in Italian national elections, Pius led the reaction against Christian Democracy because he could not tolerate the idea of some Catholics making their social work a matter independent of the hierarchy and conducting it in an increasingly political direction. He opposed the contemporary trend in European countries where Christians reacted against doctrines of materialism by forming their own social movements or popular action groups. Accordingly, he formally condemned the Italian priest Romolo Murri's popular action movement in 1903 and the pioneering Christian Democrat Marc Sangnier's Sillon movement in France. The Sillon broke from the church, whose authority it challenged.On Pius' accession, the separation of church and state in France was already visible, and the break was inevitable, occurring amid a growing anticlericalism in France. In 1905 the French formally separated church from state, an act condemned by Pius on Feb. 11, 1906. Most of the French bishops were willing to try the new French legislation, which safeguarded all that could still be preserved of the church's material interests, but Pius rejected the compromise.Some of his directives, though superceded by later social developments, mark him as one of the forerunners of Catholic Action—i.e., the organization of the laity for special and direct collaboration in the church's apostolic work. His eucharistic decrees eased the regulations governing daily communion, and his revival of the Gregorian plainsong and his recasting of the breviary and of the missal were important liturgical reforms. His decision to adapt and systematize canon law led to the publication of the new code in 1917, effective in 1918. His reorganization of the Curia modernized the church's central administration, including a codification of the conclave.Additional ReadingF.A. Forbes, Life of Pius X, 3rd ed. (1924); Raphael Merry del Val, Memories of Pope Pius X (1939, reissued 1956); and the article by Andrew M. Canepa “Pius X” in Frank J. Coppa (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Vatican and Papacy (1999), 336–338.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Pius V,Saint — Pius V, Saint Originally Antonio Ghislieri. 1504 1572. Pope (1566 1572). A leading figure of the Catholic Reformation, he excommunicated Elizabeth I of England. * * * … Universalium
Pius X,Saint — Pius X, Saint Originally Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto. 1835 1914. Pope (1903 1914) who was strongly opposed to religious modernism. * * * … Universalium
Pius V, Saint — orig. Antonio or Michele Ghislieri born Jan. 17, 1504, Bosco, duchy of Milan died May 1, 1572, Rome, Papal States; canonized May 22, 1712; feast day April 30 Pope (1566–72). He joined the Dominican order at age 14 and was ordained in 1528. A… … Universalium
Pius I, Saint — ▪ pope born , Aquileia, Venetia died 155, Rome; feast day July 11 Latin pope from c. 142 to c. 155. Pius was a slave, according to his supposed brother, the apostolic father Hermas. As pope, Pius combatted Gnosticism a religious… … Universalium
Pius of Saint Aloysius — Infobox Saint name=Blessed Pius of St. Aloysius birth date=birth date|1868|04|29 death date=death date and age|1889|11|02|1868|04|29 feast day=November 2 venerated in=Roman Catholic Church birth place=Trebbio, Rimini, Italy death place=Casale,… … Wikipedia
Pius — is a male name, from the Latin word pius , the meaning of which is similar to the English pious from piety , meaning a desire and willingness to perform religious duties. The name is most commonly associated with popes, twelve of whom (including… … Wikipedia
Pius — [pī′əs] 1. Pius II (born Enea Silvio de Piccolomini) 1405 64; pope (1458 64) 2. Pius VII (born Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti) 1742 1823; pope (1800 23) 3. Pius IX (born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti) 1792 1878; pope (1846 78) 4 … Universalium
Pius XII — (Eugenio Pacelli) 1876 1958, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1939 58. * * * orig. Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli born March 2, 1876, Rome, Italy died Oct. 9, 1958, Castel Gandolfo Pope (1939–58). Before succeeding Pius XI in 1939, he served… … Universalium
Pius — Pi•us [[t]ˈpaɪ əs[/t]] n. 1) big Pius II, (Enea Silvio de Piccolomini) 1405–64, Italian pope 1458–64 2) big Pius V, Saint (Michele Ghislieri) 1504–72, Italian pope 1566–72 3) big Pius VII, (Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti) 1740–1823, Italian pope… … From formal English to slang
Saint — 1347 80, Italian ascetic and mystic. died A.D. 731, pope 715 731. died A.D. 741, pope 731 741. died A.D. 352, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 337 352. died A.D. 683, Sicilian ecclesiastic: pope 682 683. died A.D. 855, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 847… … Universalium