Pelham, Henry

born 1696
died March 6, 1754, London, Eng.

British prime minister (1743–54).

He was elected to Parliament in 1717 and, as a supporter of Robert Walpole, became secretary for war (1724) and paymaster of the forces (1730). He succeeded Walpole as prime minister and chancellor of the Exchequer in 1743 and led a stable Whig ministry with parliamentary assistance from his brother, Thomas Pelham-Holles, duke of Newcastle. Pelham resisted attempts to prolong the War of the Austrian Succession and signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). After the war, he introduced financial reforms, including lower military expenditures, a reduced land tax, and a consolidation of the national debt.

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▪ prime minister of United Kingdom
born 1696
died March 6, 1754, London, Eng.
 prime minister of Great Britain from 1743 to 1754. A somewhat colourless politician, he worked for peace abroad and introduced important financial reforms.

      The son of Thomas, 1st Lord Pelham, he was educated at Hart Hall (later Hertford College), Oxford, and then served briefly in the army. First elected to Parliament in 1717, Pelham became a supporter of Robert Walpole (prime minister 1730–42), who helped him obtain appointments as lord of the Treasury (1721), secretary for war (1724), and paymaster to the forces (1730). After Walpole resigned under pressure from the House of Commons in 1742, Pelham became prime minister and chancellor of the Exchequer in a ministry that included his brother Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle, and John Carteret, a favourite of King George II. He led a relatively stable Whig ministry until his death in 1754, with much of his success stemming from his brother's brilliant electoral and parliamentary management.

      Carteret's attempts to involve England more deeply in conflict with France and Prussia (War of the Austrian Succession, 1740–48) caused Pelham to dismiss him in 1744, shortly after Carteret had been created Earl Granville. When George II continued to push for the return of Granville, Pelham retaliated by calling for a mass resignation of the ministers on Feb. 11, 1746—the first such action in English history. Since Granville was unable to form a new ministry, Pelham returned to office three days later, bringing into his ministry William Pitt (later Earl of Chatham), whom the king disliked. Subsequently, Pelham's only serious political opposition came from Frederick Louis, prince of Wales, who unsuccessfully endeavoured to depict his father, George II, as a captive of the Pelhams. In 1748 Pelham signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession, which he had seen as a severe financial drain on the country. After the war he accomplished a major reduction of the military establishment and of government expenses, and he reduced the land tax and consolidated the national debt.

Additional Reading
John W. Wilkes, A Whig in Power (1964).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pelham, Henry — (1696–6 mar. 1754, Londres, Inglaterra). Primer ministro británico (1743–54). Fue elegido al parlamento en 1717 y, como partidario de Robert Walpole, se convirtió en secretario de guerra (1724) y pagador general del ejército (1730). Sucedió a… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Henry Pelham — Mandats 3e Premier ministre de Grande Bretagne …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Henry Pelham — (* 25. September 1694 in Laughton, Sussex; † 6. März 1754 in London) war Premierminister von Großbritannien vom 14. Februar 1743 bis zu seinem Tode. Familie Henry Pelham war der jü …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Henry Pelham — Henry Pelham. Henry Pelham (25 de septiembre de 1694 en Laughton, Sussex– 6 marzo de 1754 en Londres) fue un político británico whig, quien se desempeñó como Primer Ministro de Gran Bretaña desde 27 de agosto de 1743, hasta su muerte en 1754. Fue …   Wikipedia Español

  • Henry Pelham — Infobox Prime Minister honorific prefix = The Right Honourable name=Henry Pelham office=Prime Minister of Great Britain term start =27 August 1743 term end =6 March 1754 monarch =George II predecessor =The Earl of Wilmington successor =The Duke… …   Wikipedia

  • Pelham — /pel euhm/, n. a bit that is used with two pairs of reins, designed to serve the purpose of a full bridle. [after the proper name Pelham] /pel euhm/, n. Henry, 1696 1754, British statesman: prime minister 1743 54 (brother of Thomas Pelham Holles) …   Universalium

  • henry — /hen ree/, n., pl. henries, henrys. Elect. the SI unit of inductance, formally defined to be the inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive force of one volt is produced when the electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at a …   Universalium

  • Henry — /hen ree/, n. 1. Joseph, 1797 1878, U.S. physicist. 2. O., pen name of William Sydney Porter. 3. Patrick, 1736 99, American patriot, orator, and statesman. 4. Cape, a cape in SE Virginia at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. 5. Fort. See …   Universalium

  • Henry — ► sustantivo masculino ELECTRICIDAD Denominación del henrio en la nomenclatura internacional. IRREG. plural henrys * * * henrio o henry (de J. Henry, físico inglés) m. Fís. Unidad de inductancia eléctrica en el Sistema Internacional. * * * …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • henry — ► sustantivo masculino ELECTRICIDAD Denominación del henrio en la nomenclatura internacional. IRREG. plural henrys * * * henrio o henry (de J. Henry, físico inglés) m. Fís. Unidad de inductancia eléctrica en el Sistema Internacional. * * * henry …   Enciclopedia Universal

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