Pan-Turkism

Political movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which had as its goal the political union of all Turkic-speaking peoples in the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, Iran, and Afghanistan.

The movement, which began among the Turks in the Crimea and on the Volga, initially sought to unite the Turks of the Ottoman and Russian empires against growing Russian domination. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the father of the Republic of Turkey, later de-emphasized Pan-Turkism, encouraging Turkish nationalism only within Turkey. See also Ismail Gasprinski; Enver Pasha; Young Turks.

* * *

▪ political movement, Turkey
      political movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which had as its goal the political union of all Turkish-speaking peoples in the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, Iran, and Afghanistan. The movement, which began among the Turks in the Crimea and on the Volga, initially sought to unite the Turks of the Ottoman and Russian empires against the growing Russian tsarist domination.

      In 1883 İsmail Gasprinski (Gasprinski, Ismail), a Crimean Turk, proclaiming the “unity in language, thought and action” of all the Turkish-speaking peoples in the Russian and Ottoman empires, established the Turkish newspaper Tercüman in the Russian Crimea. In 1911 Yussuf Aktshura Oghlu founded in Constantinople (Istanbul) a similar paper, Türk Yurdu (“The Turkish Homeland”). At the same time, prominent Turkish writers such as Ziya Gökalp (Gökalp, Ziya) and Halide Edib Adıvar, author of the novel Yeni Turan (1912; “The New Turan”), glorified the common legendary past and the future of the Turkish race. Their symbol was a she-wolf (Bozkurt), regarded as the mother of the race and worshiped before the Turkish conversion to Islām.

      During the years 1913–18, when Turkey was involved in a bitter struggle with Russia, Pan-Turkish propaganda was officially promoted by the Ottoman government. In the 1920s and '30s Kemal Atatürk deemphasized Pan-Turkism, instead encouraging Turkish nationalism within Turkey. During World War II, the revival of Pan-Slavism under Joseph Stalin and the Russian threat to Turkish autonomy brought a renewed, though slight, interest in Pan-Turkism among some Turks. The demand for a federation of Turkish states continued after World War II among the Turkish-speaking Islāmic peoples in the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pan-Turkism — is a political movement aiming to unite the various Turkic peoples into a modern political state, a confederation, or an economic union closely resembling that of the European Union.NameIn the research literature, the term Pan Turkism is used to… …   Wikipedia

  • Pan-turkism —    Originally a religious and cultural project of Volga and Crimean Tatars against Russification, pan Turkism expanded beyond the Romanov Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement was loosely linked to Jadidism, a modernizing …   Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation

  • Pan-Turkism — noun A political movement started more than 100 years ago aiming to unite the various Turkic peoples into a modern political state. See Also: Pan Turkist …   Wiktionary

  • Pan-nationalism — is a form of nationalism distinguished by the large scale of the claimed national territory, and because it often defines the nation on the basis of a ‘’cluster’’ of cultures and ethnic groups. It shares the general nationalist ideology, that the …   Wikipedia

  • Pan-Celticism — is the name given to a variety of movements that espouse greater contact between the various Celtic nations.Types of Pan CelticismPan Celticism can operate on the following levels: * Linguistic many organisations promote linguistic ties, notably… …   Wikipedia

  • Pan — /pan/, n. the ancient Greek god of forests, pastures, flocks, and shepherds, represented with the head, chest, and arms of a man and the legs and sometimes the horns and ears of a goat. /pan/, n. an international distress signal used by shore… …   Universalium

  • Pan-Iranism — is an ideology that advocates solidarity and reunification of Iranian peoples living in the Iranian continent and Iranian plateau ( Falāte Īrān ), including Ossetians, Kurds, Armenians, Persians (including the Tajiks and Qizilbash), Hazaras,… …   Wikipedia

  • Pan-Turanismus — Der Turanismus (türk. turancılık) ist eine Ideologie, die einen gemeinsamen Ursprung der Türken, Ungarn, Finnen, Esten, Mongolen, Mandschuren und Jakuten annimmt.[1] Die spekulative Urheimat dieser „Turanier“ oder „turaniden Rasse“ war Turan,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • pan — pan1 panner, n. /pan/, n., v., panned, panning. n. 1. a broad, shallow container of metal, usually having sides flaring outward toward the top, used in various forms for frying, baking, washing, etc. 2. any similar receptacle or part, as the… …   Universalium

  • Pan-Turkismus — Panturkismus bedeutete im späten 19. und im frühen 20. Jahrhundert den Wunsch nach Vereinigung aller Turkvölker in einem einzigen Staat. Der Panturkismus weist auch starke Überschneidungen mit dem Turanismus auf, weshalb beide Begriffe oft auch… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.