Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele

born May 19, 1860, Palermo, Italy
died Dec. 1, 1952, Rome

Italian politician and prime minister (1917–19).

He was elected to Italy's Chamber of Deputies in 1897 and served in cabinet positions from 1903. As prime minister, he led Italy's delegation to the Paris Peace Conference, but he was unable to obtain concessions from the Allies for Italian-claimed territory and resigned. As president of the Chamber of Deputies (1919–25), he resigned in protest against the electoral fraud of Benito Mussolini's Fascist Party. He was president of the postwar Constituent Assembly (1946–47).

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▪ prime minister of Italy
born May 19, 1860, Palermo, Italy
died Dec. 1, 1952, Rome

      Italian statesman and prime minister during the concluding years of World War I and head of his country's delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference.

      Educated at Palermo, Orlando made a name for himself with writings on electoral reform and government administration before being elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1897. He served as minister of education in 1903–05 and of justice in 1907–09, resuming the same portfolio in 1914. He favoured Italy's entrance into the war (May 1915), and in October 1917, in the crisis following the defeat of Italy's forces at the Battle of Caporetto by the Austrians, he became prime minister, successfully rallying the country to a renewed effort.

      After the war's victorious conclusion, Orlando went to Paris and Versailles (Versailles, Treaty of), where he had a serious falling out with his allies, especially President Woodrow Wilson (Wilson, Woodrow) of the United States, over Italy's claims to formerly Austrian territory. On the question of the port of Fiume, which was contested by Yugoslavia after the war, Wilson appealed over Orlando's head to the Italian people, a maneuver that failed. Orlando's inability to get concessions from the Allies rapidly undermined his position, and he resigned on June 19, 1919. On December 2 he was elected president of the Chamber of Deputies. In the rising conflict between the workers' organizations and the new Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini (Mussolini, Benito), he at first supported Mussolini, but when the leader of the Italian Socialist Party, Giacomo Matteotti, was assassinated by the Fascists, Orlando withdrew his support. (The murder marked the beginning of Mussolini's dictatorship over Italy.) Orlando opposed the Fascists in local elections in Sicily and resigned from Parliament in protest against Fascist electoral fraud (1925).

      Orlando remained in retirement until the liberation of Rome in World War II, when he became a member of the consultative assembly and president of the Constituent Assembly elected in June 1946. His objections to the peace treaty led to his resignation in 1947. In 1948 he was elected to the new Italian Senate and in the same year was a candidate for the presidency of the republic (an office elected by Parliament) but was defeated by Luigi Einaudi (Einaudi, Luigi).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Orlando,Vittorio Emanuele — Or·lan·do (ôr lănʹdō, länʹ ), Vittorio Emanuele. 1860 1952. Italian politician who served as prime minister of Italy (1917 1919) and was the Italian delegate at the Paris Peace Conference (1919 1920). * * * …   Universalium

  • Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele — (1860–1952)    A Sicilian professor of law, Orlando was a member of several prefascist cabinets, rising to the post of minister of the interior during World War I. In 1917, he became prime minister himself when the Caporetto disaster brought… …   Historical Dictionary of modern Italy

  • Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele — (19 may. 1860, Palermo, Italia–1 dic. 1952, Roma). Político y primer ministro italiano (1917–19). Fue elegido a la Cámara de Diputados en 1897 y ocupó cargos ministeriales a partir de 1903. Como primer ministro, encabezó la delegación italiana en …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — Orlando (2. von links) bei den Verhandlungen in Versailles mit David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau und Woodrow Wilson (von links) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (* 19. Mai 1860 in Palermo; † 1. Dezember 1952 in Rom) war italie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — (Palermo, 1860 1952). Primer ministro italiano desde 1917 hasta 1919. Nacido en Palermo, Sicilia, estudió y posteriormente dio clases de leyes. Durante su carrera escribió más de 100 artículos sobre temas legales y jurídicos. De 1903 a 1905… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — Infobox Prime Minister name = Vittorio Emanuele Orlando order = 35th Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy monarch = Victor Emanuel III term start = 29 October 1917 term end = 23 June 1919 predecessor = Paolo Boselli successor = Francesco Nitti… …   Wikipedia

  • Vittorio Orlando — Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, né à Palerme le 19 mai 1860, mort à Rome le 1er décembre 1952, Président du Conseil italien en 1917. Biographie Cette section est vide, pas assez détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vittorio Orlando — Orlando (2. von links) bei den Verhandlungen in Versailles mit David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau und Woodrow Wilson (von links) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (* 19. Mai 1860 in Palermo; † 1. Dezember …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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