Nijmegen, Treaties of
(1678–79) Peace treaties that ended the Franco-Dutch War.In the treaty between France and the Dutch Republic, France agreed to return Maastricht and to suspend the anti-Dutch tariff of 1667. In the treaty between France and Spain, Spain gave up regions to France that gave it a protected northeastern border and secured the safety of Paris. By negotiating separate treaties, France gained advantages over its enemies in the war.
* * *▪ European historyNijmegen also spelled Nimwegen,peace treaties of 1678–79 that ended the Dutch War (q.v.), in which France had opposed Spain and the Dutch Republic (now The Netherlands). France gained advantages by arranging terms with each of its enemies separately.Although negotiations had begun in 1676, the first treaty, between France and the Dutch Republic, was not concluded until Aug. 10, 1678. France agreed to return Maastricht and to suspend Jean-Baptiste Colbert's anti-Dutch tariff of 1667; these concessions represented a major victory for Dutch naval power and commerce. In the second treaty, concluded between France and Spain on Sept. 17, 1678, Spain was forced to make major concessions, indicating that its power had declined since the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Spain gave up Franche-Comté, Artois, and 16 fortified towns in Flanders to France. France returned some of its enclaves in the Spanish Netherlands to Spain to round out the formerly arbitrary frontier line there. On the whole, France gained substantially by the possession of a more rational northeastern border and of border fortresses that secured the safety of Paris. Furthermore, with Franche-Comté finally in French hands, Spain had lost its “corridor” between Milan and the Spanish Netherlands.The Holy Roman emperor Leopold I finally accepted French terms on Feb. 5, 1679, keeping Philippsburg but giving up Freiburg im Breisgau to France and granting free access through his territory to it from Breisach (French since 1648). France also continued to occupy Lorraine, since its duke, Charles V, refused the conditions imposed for his restoration. Two further treaties in 1679 terminated hostilities between France and Brandenburg (Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye) and between France and Denmark (Peace of Fontainebleau). Brandenburg and Denmark restored to France's ally, Sweden, territories taken by them.
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Treaties of Nijmegen — The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen ( Négotiations de Nimegue or Négotiations de la Paix de Nimègue ) were a series of treaties, signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen, August 1678 December 1679, ending war between various countries, including France … Wikipedia
Nijmegen — /nuy may geuhn/; Du. /nuy may kheuhn, kheuh/, n. a city in the E Netherlands, on the Waal River: peace treaty 1678. 221,684. German, Nimwegen. Formerly, Nymwegen. * * * ▪ The Netherlands German Nimwegen gemeente (municipality), eastern… … Universalium
France — /frans, frahns/; Fr. /frddahonns/, n. 1. Anatole /ann nann tawl /, (Jacques Anatole Thibault), 1844 1924, French novelist and essayist: Nobel prize 1921. 2. a republic in W Europe. 58,470,421; 212,736 sq. mi. (550,985 sq. km). Cap.: Paris. 3.… … Universalium
Austria — Austrian, adj., n. /aw stree euh/, n. a republic in central Europe. 8,054,078; 32,381 sq. mi. (83,865 sq. km). Cap.: Vienna. German, Österreich. * * * Austria Introduction Austria Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro… … Universalium
Netherlands, The — officially Kingdom of The Netherlands byname Holland Country, northwestern Europe. Area: 16,033 sq mi (41,526 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 16,142,000. Capital: Amsterdam; Seat of Government: The Hague. Most of the people are Dutch. Languages:… … Universalium
Spain — /spayn/, n. a kingdom in SW Europe. Including the Balearic and Canary islands, 39,244,195; 194,988 sq. mi. (505,019 sq. km). Cap.: Madrid. Spanish, España. * * * Spain Introduction Spain Background: Spain s powerful world empire of the 16th and… … Universalium
treaty — /tree tee/, n., pl. treaties. 1. a formal agreement between two or more states in reference to peace, alliance, commerce, or other international relations. 2. the formal document embodying such an international agreement. 3. any agreement or… … Universalium
Louis XIV — ( the Great ; the Sun King ) 1638 1715, king of France 1643 1715 (son of Louis XIII). * * * known as the Sun King born Sept. 5, 1638, Saint Germain en Laye, France died Sept. 1, 1715, Versailles King of France (1643–1715), ruler during one of… … Universalium
Artois — /annrdd twah /, n. a former province in N France: artesian wells. * * * ▪ historical region, France historic and cultural region encompassing most of the northern French département of Pas de Calais and coextensive with the former province… … Universalium
Oxenstierna, Bengt Gabrielsson, Greve — ▪ Swedish statesman born July 16, 1623, Morby Castle, Sweden died July 12, 1702, Stockholm Swedish statesman who, as the principal foreign policy adviser of King Charles XI, established a virtually neutral foreign policy for Sweden,… … Universalium