Nicephorus II Phocas

born 912, Cappadocia
died Dec. 10/11, 969, Constantinople

Byzantine emperor (963–969).

A powerful military commander, he fought the Arabs in the east, liberated Crete from its Arab rulers (961), and gained control of the eastern Mediterranean. After the death of Romanus II, Nicephorus cooperated in a plot to seize the throne, accepting the crown (963) and marrying Theophano, the regent of the two legitimate heirs. He continued his exploits against the Arabs but was surrounded by discontent and intrigue at home; he retired to a fortified palace, where he was killed by former friends guided by his wife and his chief lieutenant.

* * *

▪ Byzantine emperor
Introduction
born 912, Cappadocia
died Dec. 10/11, 969, Constantinople

      Byzantine emperor (963–969), whose military achievements against the Muslim Arabs contributed to the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 10th century.

Early life.
      Nicephorus Phocas was the son of Bardas Phocas, an important Byzantine general in Anatolia, on the borders of the empire. He quickly embraced a military career of arms and as a young patrician distinguished himself at his father's side in a war against the Ḥamdānid Arabs in the East. In 954–955 the emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus named him commander in chief of the armies of the East, to replace the aging Bardas. Nicephorus proceeded to restructure the army to reinforce discipline and improve recruiting. At this point he probably wrote the treatises on military tactics that are attributed to him, although proof is lacking.

      The emperor Romanus II named him commander of a wartime expedition to liberate Crete (which had been controlled by the Arabs ever since 826), at great cost to Aegean populations and international commerce. This enterprise mobilized the entire Byzantine fleet and close to 24,000 men. Nicephorus gained the island with the capture of Chandax, now Iráklion, on March 7, 961. In a general massacre, the inhumanity of which revealed his fierce nature, he broke all Arab resistance. Aided by the monks, among whom was Athanasius, his spiritual director and founder of the Greek Orthodox monastery on Mt. Athos, Nicephorus achieved the reconsolidation of Christianity. He then returned to Constantinople with ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, the last amīr of Crete, as his captive. This exploit, sung by the poet Theodosius the Deacon, realized the Byzantine dream (after dozens had failed to liberate Crete) of imperial mastery of the eastern Mediterranean. Later, as emperor, Nicephorus could state proudly that he controlled the seas. By that time, however, he had recovered Cilicia and the island of Cyprus and had captured other Muslim naval bases.

      At the beginning of 962, Nicephorus attacked the Arabs of Cilicia and Syria, capturing more than 60 fortresses. After the death of Romanus II on March 15, 963, the situation in the capital changed. The Emperor's will had left a eunuch, Joseph Bringas, in charge of the affairs of state and the 20-year-old empress, Theophano, as acting regent for the legitimate emperors, Basil and Constantine, aged six and three, respectively. These circumstances do not seem to have tempted Nicephorus.

Rise to power.
      In spite of his great popularity, there was no indication that Nicephorus—whose physical appearance was reportedly not very agreeable and who seemed destined under the influence of Athanasius the Athonite to embrace the monastic life—would end up seducing and being seduced by the young and beautiful empress. If such a plan existed at the time (and there is reason to believe it did) it was probably the brainchild of the ambitious Theophano, who was unhappy with Bringas' government. The people of Constantinople, aroused by Basil The Chamberlain, revolted against Bringas, and the imperial army, through the intermediation of John Tzimisces (John I Tzimisces), Nicephorus' faithful lieutenant, “obliged” the soldier to accept the crown at Caesarea on July 3, 963, and to march against Constantinople. On Aug. 16, 963, Nicephorus was crowned in the Hagia Sophia by the patriarch Polyeuctus, and on September 20 he celebrated his marriage to Theophano.

      Smitten with the young woman and influenced by his brother Leo Phocas, whose self-interested machinations (he was accused of speculating on the price of wheat) stirred up the discontent of the people of Constantinople, Nicephorus gradually became taciturn and suspicious even of his best advisers, who, one after another, were removed from office. As emperor, Nicephorus continued his exploits against the Arabs until finally, abandoned by all, he retired to the fortified palace of Boukoleion, which he had built for his personal safety. During a night in December 969, he was killed there by former friends, guided by Tzimisces and advised by Theophano.

      The contradictions in Nicephorus' life and character also marked his domestic politics. His government evoked unanimous discontent: the hostility of the people to the new fiscal charges and coinage debasement required by military needs; the exasperation of ecclesiastical authorities over decisions against enrichment of the monasteries; the remonstrances of his spiritual director, Athanasius, against his private life; and the apprehensions of Theophano that her children would be ousted through the machinations of Leo Phocas. These all created a climate of intrigue, which resulted in Nicephorus' assassination and brought John Tzimisces to the throne.

Military achievements.
      The failure of Nicephorus' domestic policies did not cast a shadow on his military achievement, which made his reign one of the Byzantine Empire's most glorious. In the words of C. Schlumberger, his most exhaustive biographer, he inaugurated the Byzantine era in the East. In fact, though known primarily for his exploits against the infidel, Nicephorus also carried the imperial frontier beyond the Euphrates to Syria. Nor did he neglect the other imperial frontiers in the conception of Byzantine grandeur. To counteract the Bulgar menace he spurred Russian intervention in the Danubian area, a policy that was not without danger for Byzantium, especially after his death. Also, to stop expansionist plans of the Germanic sovereign Otto I, who was re-creating the Carolingian heritage, Nicephorus opposed Otto's title of emperor, while trying with more or less success to consolidate the Byzantine presence in Italy. Nicephorus II's policies, seen in their entirety, indicate that his purpose was to assure Byzantium of its place as international arbiter, which he accomplished through the use of arms.

Reputation.
      Phocas was indeed a Nicephorus (Bringer of Victory) for the empire. The Byzantines surnamed him Kallinikos, artisan of good victories; the Arabs called him Nikfour, the Saracen hammer. His death caused joy in the Muslim world and shook Christianity. His legend was quickly nourished with stories of his exploits and tragic death. Byzantine and even Bulgar poets were inspired by his exploits, and posterity has kept his memory alive: he is celebrated in the epic poetry of the frontier; the church beatified him (an acolouthie was composed in his honour); and the monks of Mt. Athos still venerate as their benefactor and founder Nicephorus, emperor and martyr. His life was summed up in the phrase inscribed on his sarcophagus: “You conquered all but a woman.”

Hélène Ahrweiler

Additional Reading
C. Schlumberger, Un Empereur byzantin au Xe siècle: Nicéphore Phocas (1890), is a comprehensive biography. The same author's L'Épopée byzantine à la fin du Xe siècle, 3 vol. (1896–1905); and A.A. Vasiliev, Byzance et les Arabes, vol. 2, La Dynastie macédonienne (1968), are useful for Nicephorus Phocas' career in the East. Also of interest is H. Gregoire, “The Amorians and the Macedonians, 842–1025,” in The Cambridge Medieval History, new ed., vol. 4, pt. 1, pp. 147–156 (1966).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • NICEPHORUS II — I. NICEPHORUS II Phocas, Dux copiarum Romani Iunioris Cretam Saracenis eripuit, eosdemque in Syria graviter afflixit; illi mortuo surrogatus ab Exercitu, A. C. 963. coronam a Patriarcha Polyeucte accepit. Ductâ dein Romani viduâ Theophaniâ,… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Nicephorus Xiphias — was a Byzantine military commander during the reign of Emperor Basil II. He was the governor of Plovdiv in Thrace. In 1001 he lead a successful Byzantine campaign in north eastern Bulgaria and capturred the old Bulgarian capitals Pliska and… …   Wikipedia

  • PHOCAS — I. PHOCAS Grammaticus, qui de Nomine et Verbo scripsit. II. PHOCAS Romanorum Imperator, vel potius tyrannus Orientis, ex centurione, A. C. 602. De quo Sanctus quidam Monachus, cum Deo disceptans, cur tam impium Christianis imposuisset Imperatorem …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Nicephorus III Botaneiates — ▪ Byzantine emperor Nicephorus also spelled  Nikephoros  born c. 1001 died c. 1081  Byzantine emperor (1078–81) whose use of Turkish support in acquiring and holding the throne tightened the grip of the Seljuq Turks on Anatolia.       Nicephorus …   Universalium

  • Nicephorus Callistus Xanthopoulos — ▪ Byzantine historian also spelled  Nikephoros Kallistos Xanthopoulos   born c. 1256 died c. 1335       Byzantine historian and litterateur whose stylistic prose and poetry exemplify the developing Byzantine humanism of the 13th and 14th… …   Universalium

  • Nicephorus — Nicéphore Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Nicéphore est un nom propre qui peut désigner : Sommaire 1 Prénom 2 Saints chrétiens …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bardas Phocas — was an eminent Byzantine general who took a conspicuous part in three revolts pro and contra the ruling Macedonian dynasty. First rebellion Bardas s father, Leon Phocas, was a Cappadocian curopalates and brother to the Emperor Nicephorus Phocas.… …   Wikipedia

  • Nikephoros II Phokas — Nicephorus Phocas redirects here. For the emperor s grandfather, see Nikephoros Phokas the Elder. For the Cretan municipality, see Nikiforos Fokas. Nikephoros II Phokas Emperor of the Byzantine Empire …   Wikipedia

  • Byzantine Empire — the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the Western Empire in A.D. 476. Cap.: Constantinople. * * * Empire, southeastern and southern Europe and western Asia. It began as the city of Byzantium, which had grown from an ancient Greek colony… …   Universalium

  • The Byzantine Empire —     The Byzantine Empire     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Byzantine Empire     The ancient Roman Empire having been divided into two parts, an Eastern and a Western, the Eastern remained subject to successors of Constantine, whose capital was at …   Catholic encyclopedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.