New York Times, The

Morning daily newspaper, long the U.S. newspaper of record.

From its establishment in 1851 it has aimed to avoid sensationalism and to appeal to cultured, intellectual readers. In 1896 it was bought by Adolph Ochs, who built it into an internationally respected daily. Its prestige was notably enhanced by its coverage of the sinking of the Titanic and of the two world wars. In the 1970s it became involved in controversy with its publication of the Pentagon Papers. Later in the decade, under the direction of Ochs's grandson, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, its organization and staff underwent sweeping changes, including the introduction of a national edition printed at regional sites. Today it is perhaps the most respected and influential newspaper in the world. It is the flagship of The New York Times Co., whose interests include other newspapers (including the Boston Globe), magazines, and broadcast and electronic media.

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▪ American newspaper
      morning daily newspaper published in New York City, long the newspaper of record in the United States and one of the world's great newspapers. Its strength is in its editorial excellence; it has never been the largest newspaper in terms of circulation.

      The Times was established in 1851 as a penny paper that would avoid sensationalism and report the news in a restrained and objective fashion. It enjoyed early success as its editors set a pattern for the future by appealing to a cultured, intellectual readership instead of a mass audience. But its high moral tone was no asset in the heated competition of other papers for readers in New York City. Despite price increases, The Times was losing $1,000 a week when Adolph Simon Ochs (Ochs, Adolph Simon) bought it in 1896.

      Ochs built the Times into an internationally respected daily. Aided by an editor he hired away from the New York Sun, Carr Van Anda, Ochs placed greater stress than ever on full reporting of the news of the day, maintained and emphasized existing good coverage of international news, eliminated fiction from the paper, added a Sunday magazine section, and reduced the paper's newsstand price back to a penny. The paper's imaginative and risky exploitation of all available resources to report every aspect of the sinking of the Titanic in April 1912 greatly enhanced its prestige. In its coverage of two world wars the Times continued to enhance its reputation for excellence in world news.

      In 1971 the Times became the centre of controversy when it published a series of reports based on the “Pentagon Papers,” a secret government study of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War that had been covertly given to the Times by government officials. The U.S. Supreme Court found that the publication was protected by the freedom-of-the-press clause in the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Later in the 1970s the paper, under Adolph Ochs's grandson, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, introduced sweeping changes in the organization of the newspaper and its staff and brought out a national edition transmitted by satellite to regional printing plants.

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Universalium. 2010.

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