Mumford, Lewis

born Oct. 19, 1895, Flushing, N.Y., U.S.
died Jan. 26, 1990, Amenia, N.Y.

U.S. architectural critic, urban planner, and cultural historian.

After studying at the City College of New York and at the New School for Social Research, he taught at various universities and wrote for The New Yorker, The Dial, and other magazines. In works such as Technics and Civilization (1934), The City in History (1961), and The Myth of the Machine (3 vol., 1967–70), Mumford analyzed the effects of technology and urbanization on human societies, criticizing the dehumanizing tendencies of modern technological society and urging that it be brought into harmony with humanistic goals and aspirations. See also urban planning.

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▪ American architectural critic
born Oct. 19, 1895, Flushing, N.Y., U.S.
died Jan. 26, 1990, Amenia, N.Y.

      American architectural critic, urban (urban planning) planner, and historian who analyzed the effects of technology and urbanization on human societies throughout history.

      Mumford studied at the City College of New York and at the New School for Social Research. While a student he was influenced by the writings of Patrick Geddes, who was one of the pioneers of modern urban planning. Mumford became an associate editor of the Dial (1919) and wrote architectural criticism and urban commentary for The New Yorker magazine from 1931 to 1963.

      Mumford's early writings, both in periodicals and in books, established him as an authority on American architecture, art, and urban life as interpreted within their larger social context. His book Sticks and Stones (1924) is an insightful historical account of American architecture. The Golden Day (1926; reprinted 1934, 1957) and The Brown Decades: A Study of the Arts in America, 1865–1895 (1931) are more general studies of the origins and development of American culture. The four books in Mumford's “Renewal of Life” series are: Technics and Civilization (1934), The Culture of Cities (1938), The Condition of Man (1944), and The Conduct of Life (1951). In these works Mumford criticized the dehumanizing tendencies of modern technological society and urged that it be brought into harmony with humanistic goals and aspirations. One of Mumford's key works is The City in History (1961), a sweeping historical study of the city's role in human civilization.

      Mumford taught and held numerous research positions. He received the U.S. Medal of Freedom (1964) and was decorated Knight of the Order of the British Empire (1943).

      Among Mumford's late works is The Myth of the Machine, 2 vol. (1967–70), a harshly critical historical reassessment of technology's role in human development. He wrote several autobiographical works, including My Work and Days: A Personal Chronicle (1979).

Additional Reading
Donald L. Miller, Lewis Mumford: A Life (1989), is an extensive analytical biography. David R. Conrad, Education for Transformation: Implications in Lewis Mumford's Ecohumanism (1976), explores Mumford's philosophical views; and the literary background of his social reformism is outlined in Lewis F. Fried, Makers of the City (1990).

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