Mars Pathfinder

First spacecraft to land on Mars since the Viking 1976 missions.

Launched in 1996 by NASA, Pathfinder descended to the Martian surface in July 1997 using parachutes, rockets, and air bags. It then deployed instruments, including Sojourner, a small, six-wheeled robotic rover, which explored as far as 1,600 ft (500 m) from the lander and sent pictures back for over a month. The mission's main objective was to show that low-cost Mars landings and exploration are feasible.

* * *

▪ United States spacecraft
 robotic U.S. spacecraft launched to Mars to demonstrate a new way to land a spacecraft on the planet's surface and the operation of an independent robotic rover. Developed by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) as part of a low-cost approach to planetary exploration, Pathfinder successfully completed both demonstrations, gathered scientific data, and returned striking images from Mars. Its observations added to evidence that, at some time in its history, Mars was much more Earth-like than it is today, with a warmer, thicker atmosphere and much more water.

      Mars Pathfinder was launched on December 4, 1996, and landed on Mars seven months later, on July 4, 1997. As it descended through the Martian atmosphere, it was slowed successively by a heat shield, a parachute, and rockets. Its impact on the surface was cushioned by an enveloping cluster of air bags, on which it bounced to rest—the first time such a landing technique had been tried. Its landing site in Chryse Planitia (19° N, 33° W), about 850 km (530 miles) southeast of the location of the Viking 1 lander, was at the mouth of a large flood channel.

      The spacecraft consisted of two small elements, a 370-kg (816-pound) lander and a 10.6-kg (23-pound) rover. Once on the surface, the lander was formally named the Carl Sagan (Sagan, Carl) Memorial Station after the 20th-century American astronomer. The rover was named Sojourner in honour of the 19th-century African American civil rights advocate Sojourner Truth (Truth, Sojourner).

 The six-wheeled Sojourner carried two black-and-white cameras used for navigating the surface, one colour camera, and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer for determining the composition of rocks and soil. Its maximum speed was 1 cm per second (2 feet per minute). It rolled down a ramp from the lander on July 5 and over the next 21/2 months explored the vicinity of the landing site, collecting data on soil and several individual rocks. Sojourner relayed 550 images to Earth through the lander.

      In addition to communication equipment, the lander carried a stereo camera system that sent back more than 16,500 images. The images portrayed Sojourner at work and provided a vivid view of the Martian surface. They were also used to help direct the rover, to investigate the Martian atmosphere, and to measure wind direction and speed. Pathfinder transmitted its last data on September 27, 1997.

John M. Logsdon

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mars Pathfinder — Pathfinder and Sojourner at JPL in October 1996 Operator NASA – JPL Mission type Lander, rover …   Wikipedia

  • Mars Pathfinder — Марсоход Sojourner (снимок камерой посадочного аппарата) …   Википедия

  • Mars Pathfinder — in der Montagehalle Sojourner unt …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mars Pathfinder — Caractéristiques de la mission : Nom Mars Pathfinder Pays États Unis Objectif(s) Atterrir sur Mars …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mars Pathfinder — Representación artística de la Mars Pathfinder sobre Marte Características de la misión: Nombre Mars Pathfinder Nación Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

  • Mars Pathfinder — La Mars Pathfinder fue la primera de una serie de misiones a Marte que incluyen rovers (vehículos robóticos de exploración). Esta misión a Marte fue la más importante desde que las Vikings aterrizaran sobre el planeta rojo en 1976 y además, fue… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Mars Pathfinder — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mars Science Laboratory — Vue d artiste du rover MSL. Caractéristiques Organ …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mars Science Laboratory — mission 2011 concept artwork Operator NASA Major contractors Boeing Lockheed Martin …   Wikipedia

  • Mars (Planet) — Mars   Mars in natürlichen Farben, aufgenommen am 26. Juni 2001 mit dem Hubble Weltraumteleskop …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.