Mariátegui, José Carlos

born June 14, 1895, Lima, Peru
died April 16, 1930, Lima

Peruvian political leader and essayist.

In 1919 he was sent to study in Italy, where he met leading socialists of the day, including Maxim Gorky. At first a strong supporter of APRA, he split with that movement to form the Peruvian Communist Party in 1928. While emphasizing the economic aspects of Marxism in his writings, he recognized the value of religion and myth in his treatment of the Indians and advocated a greater social and political role for them. His influence is seen in the Maoist Shining Path revolutionary movement.

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▪ Peruvian political essayist
born June 14, 1894, Moquegua, Peru
died April 16, 1930, Lima

      political leader and essayist who was the first Peruvian intellectual to apply the Marxist model of historical materialism to Peruvian problems.

      The Leguía (Leguía y Salcedo, Augusto Bernardino) dictatorship in Peru (1919–30) sought to rid itself of one of its most ardent critics by sending the hitherto self-educated Mariátegui to study in Italy in 1919. While there, he established strong ideological ties with some of the leading Socialist thinkers of the time, among them Henri Barbusse, Antonio Gramsci, and Maxim Gorky. He returned to Lima in 1923 and became a strong supporter of Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torres' (Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl) Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA). After a dispute with Luis Alberto Sánchez, a leading Aprista, he left the Alliance to establish the Peruvian Socialist Party in 1928; its name was changed to the Peruvian Communist Party (Shining Path) in 1930. Though paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair, Mariátegui also founded Amauta (1926–30), a Marxist cultural and literary journal that published avant-garde writing. In essays in La escena contemporánea (1925; “The Contemporary Scene”), Mariátegui attacked Fascism and defined the responsibilities of the intellectual in countries where social oppression reigns. César Vallejo, Peru's greatest poet, was deeply influenced by him.

      Mariátegui's masterpiece is the collection of essays Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana (1928; Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality). While emphasizing the economic aspects of Marxism, Mariátegui nonetheless does not repudiate the value of religion and myth in his treatment of the Indians. His views on literature, signaling the importance of indigenous themes and language while adhering to avant-garde artistic tendencies, provided the means to reevaluate Peruvian culture. His Obras completas (“Complete Works”) were published in 1959.

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Universalium. 2010.

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