born Nov. 18, 1882, Paris, Francedied April 28, 1973, ToulouseFrench philosopher.Reared a Protestant, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1906. His thought, which is based on Aristotelianism and Thomism, incorporates ideas of other Classical and modern philosophers and draws upon anthropology, sociology, and psychology. Among the dominant themes in his work are: that science, philosophy, poetry, and mysticism are among many legitimate ways of knowing reality; that the individual person transcends the political community; that natural law expresses not only what is natural in the world but also what is known naturally by human beings; that moral philosophy must take into account other branches of human knowledge; and that people holding different beliefs must cooperate in the formation and maintenance of salutary political institutions. Among his major works are Art and Scholasticism (1920), The Degrees of Knowledge (1932), Art and Poetry (1935), Man and the State (1951), and Moral Philosophy (1960).
* * *▪ French philosopherborn Nov. 18, 1882, Parisdied April 28, 1973, Toulouse, Fr.Roman Catholic philosopher, respected both for his interpretation of the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas (Aquinas, Thomas, Saint) and for his own Thomist philosophy.Reared a Protestant, Maritain attended the Sorbonne in Paris, where he was attracted by teachers who claimed that the natural sciences alone could resolve human questions about life and death. There, however, he also met Raissa Oumansoff, a Russian-Jewish student, who began to share his quest for truth. Both became disillusioned with the Sorbonne's scientism and began to attend lectures by the intuitionist philosopher Henri Bergson. From him, they came to realize their need for “the Absolute,” and in 1906, two years after their marriage, they converted to Catholicism.After studying biology at Heidelberg (1906–08) Maritain studied Thomism at Paris and in 1913 began teaching at the Institut Catholique, serving as professor of modern philosophy (1914–39). From 1932 he also taught annually at the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies in Toronto and was a visiting professor at Princeton (1941–42) and Columbia (1941–44). He returned as professor of philosophy at Princeton (1948–60) after serving as French ambassador to the Vatican (1945–48). In 1958, at the University of Notre Dame, Ind., the Jacques Maritain Center was established to further studies along the lines of his philosophy.Maritain's thought, which is based on Aristotelianism and Thomism, incorporates features from other classical and modern philosophers and draws upon anthropology, sociology, and psychology. The dominant themes in his more than 50 books include the contentions that (1) science, philosophy, poetry, and mysticism are among many legitimate ways of knowing reality; (2) the individual person transcends the political community; (3) natural law expresses not only what is natural in the world but also what is known naturally by human beings; (4) moral philosophy must take into account other branches of human knowledge; and (5) people holding different beliefs must cooperate in the formation and maintenance of salutary political institutions.Referring to Thomism as Existentialist Intellectualism, Maritain believed that to exist is to act. His philosophy contained elements of humanism; he emphasized the importance of the individual as well as the Christian community.Some critics have regarded Maritain as the most important modern interpreter of St. Thomas. A man of acute sensibility and known as a friend of numerous painters, poets, and other artists, Maritain devoted much attention to developing a philosophy of the arts. Among his major works are Art et scolastique (1920; 4th ed., 1965; Art and Scholasticism, 1930); Distinguer pour unir, ou les degrés du savoir (1932; The Degrees of Knowledge, 1937); Frontières de la poésie et autres essais (1935; Art and Poetry, 1943); Man and the State (1951); and La Philosophie morale . . . (1960; Moral Philosophy, 1964).Additional ReadingGerald B. Phelan, Jacques Maritain (1937); Henry Bars, Maritain en notre temps (1959); Joseph Evans (ed.), Jacques Maritain: The Man and His Achievement (1963); Deal W. Hudson and Matthew Mancini (eds.), Understanding Maritain: Philosopher and Friend (1987).
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Maritain, Jacques — (1882 1973) philosopher Born in Toulouse, Jacques Maritain converted from Protestantism to Catholicism with his wife Raissa and wrote against both materialist philosophy and the ideas of henri bergson. One of the principal interpreters of… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
Maritain, Jacques — (1882–1973) Philosopher and Theologian. Maritain was born in Paris, of a Protestant family. He was educated at the Sorbonne and as a young man came under the influence of Henri bergson. However, in 1906, he converted to Roman Catholicism… … Who’s Who in Christianity
Maritain, Jacques — (1882–1973) French Thomist philosopher, most influential during his teaching years at the Institut Catholique in Paris, from 1914. Initially a Protestant, Maritain was educated at the Sorbonne. He and his wife converted to Catholicism in 1906,… … Philosophy dictionary
Maritain, Jacques — (1882 1973) A wide ranging French neo Thomist philosopher, Maritain wrote over eighty monographs, some popular and some scholarly. He also maintained a vigorous interest in politics and social affairs, serving for four years as French… … Christian Philosophy
Maritain, Jacques — ► (1882 1973) Filósofo y escritor francés. Trató de coordinar la más estricta ortodoxia con el sentido de libertad moderno. Autor de Distinguir para unir o los grados del saber (1932). * * * (18 nov. 1882, París, Francia–28 abr. 1973, Toulouse).… … Enciclopedia Universal
MARITAIN, Jacques — (1882 1973) French CHRISTIAN philosopher and leading exponent of NEO THOMISM. After World War II he became the French ambassador to the VATICAN but moved to Princeton University in 1948. He developed his political PHILOSOPHY based on the… … Concise dictionary of Religion
MARITAIN, JACQUES (1882–1973) and RAÏSSA° (1883–1960) — MARITAIN, JACQUES (1882–1973) and RAÏSSA° (1883–1960), French writers who took a positive stand on the Jewish issue during the Nazi era. Raïssa Oumansoff, a Russian Jew, was taken to Paris as a child, and there in 1904 she married Jacques… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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Maritain — Maritain, Jacques … Enciclopedia Universal
Jacques Maritain — Born 18 November 1882(1882 11 18) Paris, France Died 28 April 1973(1973 04 28) (aged 90) … Wikipedia