Magnes, Judah Leon

born July 5, 1877, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.
died Oct. 27, 1948, New York, N.Y.

U.S.-born Israeli educator and religious leader.

Ordained as a rabbi in 1900, he earned a doctorate at the University of Heidelberg in 1902. Serving as rabbi for three congregations in New York, he moved from Reform to Orthodox Judaism and became a Zionist. He drifted away from Zionism during World War I, preferring relief efforts for Jews in Palestine over political activism. After the war he became the principal founder and first president (1935–48) of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, working to advance Arab-Jewish reconciliation and advocating a binational Arab-Jewish state.

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▪ American rabbi
born July 5, 1877, San Francisco
died Oct. 27, 1948, New York City

      rabbi, religious leader, prime founder and first president of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a Zionist who came to favour a binational Arab–Jewish state.

      A graduate of the University of Cincinnati (A.B., 1898), Magnes attended Hebrew Union College and was ordained as a rabbi in 1900. He then travelled to Germany for further studies. After receiving a Ph.D. from the University of Heidelberg in 1902, Magnes returned to the United States and in 1904 became rabbi of a Reform synagogue, Temple Israel of Brooklyn. From 1905 to 1908 he was secretary of the Federation of American Zionists. In 1906 he assumed the pulpit of the Reform temple Emanu-El in New York City. His many speaking engagements on behalf of Zionism, as well as his eloquent sermons, made him a revered figure among American Jews. He founded Qehilla (Community) to unite the disparate elements of New York Jewry; its Bureau of Jewish Education (1910–41) had a profound effect for decades. A growing dissatisfaction with Reform Jewry's latitudinarian observance of ritual and custom caused Magnes to resign from Emanu-El in 1910 and accept the pulpit of Temple B'nai Jeshurun, an Orthodox congregation.

      During World War I Magnes was a pacifist and, in addition, drifted away from Zionism, whose leaders supported the Allied war effort. He joined the Joint Distribution Committee, which, unlike the Zionists, emphasized relief to Jews in Palestine rather than political activism there.

      At the war's end he went to Palestine and subsequently joined one of the many committees founded by the Zionist movement to establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Magnes soon became the guiding spirit of this effort. He raised funds, devised the university's academic program, and, when the institution was completed at Mt. Scopus in 1925, became chancellor. In 1935 he became the first president of the university, a post he retained until his death, which occurred while on a visit to New York.

      Magnes also founded Iḥud (Unity), an association dedicated to the advancement of Arab–Jewish reconciliation, and advocated an Arab–Jewish state that would be part of an Arab Federation. He worked in Iḥud with the renowned religious philosopher Martin Buber (Buber, Martin).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MAGNES, JUDAH LEON — (1877–1948), U.S. rabbi and communal leader. He was chancellor and first president of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Magnes was born in San Francisco, California, to parents who emigrated from Poland and Germany in 1863. He attended the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Magnes, Judah Leon — (1877 1948)    Prominent Hebrew educator born in San Francisco, he was ordained as a rabbi at Hebrew Union College in 1900. An ardent Zionist, he was active in many of the American Zionist organizations prior to his settling in Palestine in 1922 …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • Magnes, Judah Leon — (1877 1948)    American rabbi and educator. He was born in San Francisco. He was the rabbi of Temple Israel in Brooklyn, and later assistant rabbi of Temple Emanu El in New York. He was also president of the kehillah in New York. In 1922 he… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Magnes, Judah León — (5 jul. 1877, San Francisco, Cal., EE.UU.– 27 oct. 1948, Nueva York, N.Y.). Educador y líder religioso israelí de origen estadounidense. Ordenado rabino en 1900, obtuvo un doctorado en la Universidad de Heidelberg en 1902. Fue rabino de tres… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Judah Leon Magnes — Born July 5, 1877(1877 07 05) San Francisco, California, USA Died October 27, 1948( …   Wikipedia

  • Judah Leon Magnes — (* 5. Juli 1877 in San Francisco, Kalifornien; † 27. Oktober 1948 in New York, NY) war ein bedeutender US amerikanischer Rabbiner des Reformjudentums, Gründer und Leiter zahlreicher jüdischer Organis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Magnes, Judah Leib (Leon) — (1877–1948)    US and Palestine rabbi and educator. A native of San Francisco, Magnes was ordained a Reform rabbi in 1900. He became a minister in New York, where he founded the Kehillah (1908– 22), a communal framework for Jewish religion,… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Judah — /jooh deuh/, n. 1. the fourth son of Jacob and Leah. Gen. 29:35. 2. one of the 12 tribes of Israel traditionally descended from him. 3. the Biblical kingdom of the Hebrews in S Palestine, including the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Cf. Ephraim… …   Universalium

  • Judah — (as used in expressions) Alkalai, Judah ben Solomon Hai Benjamin, Judah P(hilip) Eleazar ben Judah de Worms Eleazar ben Judah ben Kalonymos Ibn Tibbon, Judah ben Saul Magnes, Judah León …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Leon — /lee on/, n. a male given name, form of Leo. * * * I Medieval kingdom, northwestern Spain. Leon proper included the cities of León, Salamanca, and Zamora the adjacent areas of Vallodolid and Palencia being disputed with Castile, originally its… …   Universalium

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