Macquarie, Lachlan

born Jan. 31, 1761, Ulva, Argyllshire, Scot.
died July 1, 1824, London, Eng.

British soldier and colonial governor.

He served with the British army in North America, Europe, the West Indies, and India; in 1809 he was appointed governor of New South Wales, Australia, where he replaced the corrupt military corps that had overthrown the previous governor, William Bligh. He began a program of public works construction and town planning that gave opportunities to Emancipists (freed convicts), established the colony's currency, and encouraged exploration and settlement. His policy favouring Emancipist agriculture angered the large landowners and sheep farmers (Exclusionists), and he was recalled in 1821.

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▪ governor of New South Wales, Australia
born Jan. 31, 1761, Ulva, Argyllshire, Scot.
died July 1, 1824, London, Eng.

      early governor of New South Wales, Australia (1809–21), who expanded opportunities for Emancipists (Emancipist) (freed convicts) and established a balance of power with the Exclusionists, large landowners and sheep farmers.

      Macquarie joined the British army as a boy and served in North America, Europe, and the West Indies between 1776 and 1784 and in India (1788–1803 and 1805–07). Appointed governor of New South Wales in 1809, he replaced the New South Wales Corps that had overthrown the previous governor, William Bligh. He began a program of public-works construction and town planning; by 1822 he had sponsored more than 200 works, many of them designed by the Emancipist architect Francis Greenway. Macquarie introduced the colony's own currency in 1813 and helped establish its first bank in 1817. He encouraged expansion of settlement and exploration, most notably the crossing of the Blue Mountains in 1813. His policy toward the Aborigines was the most liberal since that of the colony's first governor, Arthur Phillip.

      Macquarie's belief in development based on Emancipist agriculture angered the colony's large landowners, headed by John Macarthur, and led to a British government investigation (1819), Macquarie's recall in 1821, and his retirement to his estate on Mull in the Inner Hebrides.

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Universalium. 2010.

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