Liberal Party of Canada
One of the two major Canadian political parties.It originated in two reformist opposition groups, Rouges and Clear Grits, that emerged in the mid-19th century in what are now the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, respectively. The first Liberal government was headed by Alexander Mackenzie (1873–78). The party regained power under Wilfred Laurier (1896–1911) and was the ruling party for much of the 20th century under such prime ministers as W.L. Mackenzie King, Louis Saint Laurent, Lester Pearson, Pierre Trudeau, and Jean Chrétien. Like the Conservative Party (later the Progressive Conservative Party), the Liberal Party comprises diverse regional, ethnic, religious, and class interests.
* * *IntroductionFrench Parti Libéral du Canadacentrist Canadian political party, one of the major parties in the country since the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Liberal Party has been the governing party at the federal level for most of the period since the late 1890s, bringing together pragmatic social policy reformers and advocates of free enterprise, the balance between them shifting as leaders and context changed. The Liberal Party has been described as a “brokerage” party, in recognition of its success in appealing to a range of interests divided by region, language, ethnicity, and social class.HistoryThe Liberal Party originated in the reformist opposition groups that emerged in the mid-19th century in what are now the provinces of Quebec and Ontario—“Rouges” (Reds) in the former and Clear Grits in the latter. The looseness and instability of all party formations at the time were especially persistent on what came to be called the Liberal side.Both before and after the 1867 creation of the Canadian federation, the Conservatives under Sir John A. Macdonald (Macdonald, Sir John), Canada's first prime minister, were more successful than the Liberals in forging a durable coalition. In 1873 Alexander Mackenzie (Mackenzie, Alexander) did become the first Liberal prime minister, but his parliamentary group was undisciplined and lacked policy coherence. The party was swept from office in 1878, largely because of its support for unpopular free-trade policies. In 1887 Wilfrid Laurier (Laurier, Sir Wilfrid) assumed the Liberal leadership and was able to unify the party around a centrist platform and bridge the linguistic and regional divisions that had previously fragmented the party. Laurier became the country's first French Canadian prime minister in 1896 and held power until 1911.William Lyon Mackenzie King (King, W.L. Mackenzie) became party leader in 1919 and two years later was elected prime minister, a position he retained for all but five years until his retirement in 1948. Under his leadership, the Liberals had some success in mediating French-English and regional differences, and, by fashioning pragmatic centrist policies that included some social reforms, the party was able to draw votes from a growing social democratic constituency without diminishing its business support.Louis St. Laurent (Saint Laurent, Louis) replaced Mackenzie King as party leader in 1948 and served as prime minister until the Liberals' defeat in 1957 by the Progressive Conservative Party (Progressive Conservative Party of Canada). St. Laurent oversaw significant expansion of the welfare state in his early years, but the party also retained pro-business policies and a complacent attitude toward increased economic integration with the United States. Led by Nobel Prize-winning diplomat Lester Pearson (Pearson, Lester B.), the Liberals narrowly regained power in 1963. They once again expanded social insurance programs, introducing a comprehensive national health-care system. Pearson's government also sought to accommodate the growing nationalist movement in Quebec, allowing the province to opt out of some federal programs and extending the recognition of official bilingualism in federal government operations.Pierre Trudeau (Trudeau, Pierre Elliott), who had been an elected politician for only a few years, replaced Pearson as party leader in 1968 and was prime minister for all but a brief period in 1979–80 until his retirement from federal politics in 1984. Trudeau turned away from the party's previous attempts to accommodate Quebecers' desire for special status in the federation in favour of policies reflecting a Canadian nationalist wariness of American domination. He also focused attention on the defense of individual rights, engineering in 1982 the inclusion of a Charter of Rights and Freedoms in the Canadian constitution. Nevertheless, the party was swept from office in 1984 by the Progressive Conservatives, a defeat fueled by an overall shift to the right and the intensification of discontent in Quebec and western Canada with the Liberal government's record.Quebecer Jean Chrétien (Chrétien, Jean) returned the party to office in 1993. He presided over a pragmatic policy mix characteristic of the party's history but one in which the balance between welfare and business liberalism shifted in favour of reduced social spending and a diminished governmental role in the economy. Chrétien's focus on cutting the federal government's budget deficit led to significant reductions in financial transfers to provincial governments for social services. His views on Canadian federation and Quebec's place within it mirrored those of Trudeau. Aided by a fragmentation of conservative forces at the federal level, Chrétien led the party to successive election victories in 1997 and 2000. In December 2003 Chrétien retired from office and was succeeded as prime minister and leader of the Liberal Party by Paul Martin (Martin, Paul), a former finance minister. Martin's selection signaled a reinforcement of the focus on balancing the federal budget. In 2004 Martin called early federal elections as he sought a public mandate for his leadership. Despite allegations of corruption against the party and the uniting of the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative Party (Progressive Conservative Party of Canada) into the Conservative Party of Canada, the Liberals maintained their hold on government. Nevertheless, the party lost nearly a quarter of its seats, and Martin oversaw a minority government. In the subsequent election of January 2006, however, the Liberals were swept from office. They fared no better in the election of October 2008, in which they lost another 27 seats and registered their poorest showing ever in the popular vote.Policy and structureSince its founding, the Liberal Party has lacked a clear ideology. Along with the Conservatives (later the Progressive Conservatives), the party was composed of diverse regional, ethnic, religious, and class interests. For most of its history, the Liberals have been somewhat more supportive of social welfare spending than the Progressive Conservatives, though at times they were drawn toward that position by the electoral threat posed by the New Democratic Party.Reform liberalism (e.g., favouring greater spending on social welfare) was prominent in the 1960s and early '70s, but since then the party has adopted a more pro-business orientation, particularly since the early 1990s. The party reduced its social policy commitments and abandoned a briefly held opposition to free trade. However, it retained a centre-left position on some rights issues (e.g., abortion and gay rights).As in most other Canadian political parties, policy making is dominated by the leader. The party has local constituency associations, which are particularly important during election campaigns and have long played a prominent role in the conventions that choose party leaders. However, the party's permanent national organization is small, quiet between elections, and subservient to the parliamentary party. Although at times the parliamentary party has been fragmented by intraparty conflict, the leader exercises great leverage over legislators and can usually secure unanimous support in parliamentary voting.There are Liberal parties in each of the provinces, and the federal party is formally distinct from them both organizationally and in terms of policy. This federal-provincial division is reflective of the continuing decentralization of the country's political system and contributes to the segregation of federal and provincial political systems. The federal Liberals traditionally have been strongest in Ontario; the party also generally runs well in Quebec and the Atlantic region. The Liberals have performed significantly less well in the western provinces, where a sense of alienation from the federal government is widespread.David RaysideAdditional ReadingAn analysis of the main philosophical currents in Canadian politics, including discussion of party formation, is Colin Campbell and William Christian, Parties, Leaders, and Ideologies in Canada (1996). Stephen Clarkson and Christina McCall, Trudeau and Our Times (1990–94), examines Canada under the leadership of Liberal Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. An excellent collection of articles on Canadian political parties is Hugh G. Thorburn and Alan Whitehorn (eds.), Party Politics in Canada, 8th ed. (2001).
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