born June 28, 1883, Châteldon, Francedied Oct. 15, 1945, ParisFrench politician.A member of the Chamber of Deputies (1914–19, 1924–27) and later the Senate (from 1927), he also held a number of cabinet posts, and, as France's premier (1931–32, 1935–36), he developed the widely denounced Hoare-Laval Pact. In 1940, as minister of state in Philippe Pétain's government (see Vichy France), he began negotiations with the Germans on his own initiative, which aroused suspicion. Pétain soon dismissed him, but in 1942 he returned as head of the government. He agreed to provide French labourers for German industries and announced in a speech that he desired a German victory. In 1945 he was tried and executed as a traitor to France.
* * *▪ French politician and statesmanborn June 28, 1883, Châteldon, Fr.died Oct. 15, 1945, ParisFrench politician and statesman who led the Vichy (Vichy France) government in policies of collaboration with Germany during World War II, for which he was ultimately executed as a traitor to France.A member of the Socialist Party from 1903, Laval became a lawyer in Paris in 1909 and promptly made a name for himself by his defense of trade unionists and leftists. Elected deputy for Aubervilliers in 1914, he urged a negotiated peace to end World War I. Defeated in the 1919 election, he left the Socialist Party in 1920, became mayor of Aubervilliers (1923–44), and was reelected deputy in 1924, leaving the Chamber to become a senator in 1927. After gaining experience as minister of public works (1925), undersecretary of state (1925), minister of justice (1926), and minister of labour (1930), when he was responsible for steering the Social Insurance Act through both of the National Assembly chambers, he became premier for the first time in 1931. He early displayed a tendency to act over the heads of his ministers, especially in regard to foreign affairs. Defeated in 1932, he became minister of colonies and then minister of foreign affairs in 1934 under Gaston Doumergue and then under Pierre Flandin. Becoming premier again in 1935, Laval also took the portfolio for foreign affairs. Concerned to create a stable Europe, he made the cornerstone of his policy a strong Franco-Italian rapprochement, which eventually collapsed over the Ethiopian crisis in 1936. Domestically, Laval met financial crises by refusing to devalue the franc, cutting expenditures instead.Laval's Cabinet fell in 1936, shortly before the Popular Front victory. In 1940 he entered Marshal Pétain's government as minister of state and was largely responsible for persuading the government to remain in France and accept an armistice so that there would be a legal government in Paris that could negotiate advantageous terms and, perhaps, eventually a peace treaty. He was also responsible for persuading the Assembly to dissolve itself, thus ending the Third Republic on July 10, 1940, and for the revision of the constitution. Certain of an ultimate German victory, he became convinced that France's best course lay in collaboration with Germany in order to assure France a strong role in the future. He began negotiations on his own initiative, arousing the mistrust of his fellow ministers; Pétain dismissed him in December 1940.When he returned as head of the government in 1942, France could no longer expect to be Germany's collaborator, but instead was fighting for survival as an independent state. To assure Germany of France's goodwill, Laval agreed to provide French labourers for German industries. In a famous speech (June 1942) asking for volunteers, he announced that he desired a German victory. In general, however, he tried to protect France by hard-fought compromises in negotiations with Hitler. Laval's control of France deteriorated with the growth of the resistance movement and the attacks of extremist collaborators such as Marcel Déat, with whom the Germans forced him to work.When Germany collapsed, Laval fled to Spain, where he prepared his defense, returning to France in July 1945. On trial for treason he found himself in a hostile court, faced by a heckling jury, his defense constantly cut off. He was executed, after attempting to poison himself, on Oct. 15, 1945.
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LAVAL, PIERRE° — (1883–1945), French politician, deputy premier and premier in Vichy France during World War II. Born in Châteldon (Puy de Dôme), Laval was a militant Socialist and deputy from 1914. His views became conservative, however, and he left his party in … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Laval,Pierre — Laval, Pierre. 1883 1945. French politician who twice served as prime minister (1931 1932 and 1935 1936) and became head of the Vichy government (1942) after the surrender of France. He was executed for treason for his collaboration with the… … Universalium
Laval, Pierre — (1883 1945) political figure A member of the Vichy government of German occupied France and a leader in the collaboration effort, Pierre Laval was born in Châteldon, Puy de Dôme and educated in law at Paris. In 1914, he was elected to the… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
Laval, Pierre — 1883–1945 Laval first became infamous on an international level when he, as French Foreign Minister, accompanied by Sir Samuel Hoare, the British Foreign Secretary, made a secret agreement with Italy to surrender Abyssinian territory to her.… … Who’s Who in World War Two
Laval, Pierre — ► (1833 1945) Político francés. Fue presidente del Consejo en 1935 36, hasta el triunfo del Frente Popular. Fue detenido por Pétain por su política pronazi. Fue jefe de Gobierno de Vichy en 1942 44. Con ello se convertía en posible sucesor de… … Enciclopedia Universal
Martin-Laval, Pierre-François — (June 25, 1968, Marseille, Bouches du Rhône, France ) He settled in Paris at age twenty to attend Isabelle Nanty and Denise Bonal s acting courses. Known mostly as a member of the comedy team Les Robin des Bois, he landed a role in a TV movie… … Encyclopedia of French film directors
Pierre-Étienne Flandin — Mandats 113e président du Conseil des ministres français … Wikipédia en Français
Pierre III de Montfort de Laval — Pierre de Laval (archevêque de Reims) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pierre de Laval. Pierre de Laval (17 juillet 1442, Montfort sur Meu 1493), évêque de Saint Brieuc, de Saint Malo, puis archevêque de Reims de 1473 à 1493, religieux français … Wikipédia en Français
Pierre de Laval (archeveque de Reims) — Pierre de Laval (archevêque de Reims) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pierre de Laval. Pierre de Laval (17 juillet 1442, Montfort sur Meu 1493), évêque de Saint Brieuc, de Saint Malo, puis archevêque de Reims de 1473 à 1493, religieux français … Wikipédia en Français
Pierre de Montfort de Laval — Pierre de Laval (archevêque de Reims) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Pierre de Laval. Pierre de Laval (17 juillet 1442, Montfort sur Meu 1493), évêque de Saint Brieuc, de Saint Malo, puis archevêque de Reims de 1473 à 1493, religieux français … Wikipédia en Français