Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike

born Sept. 21, 1853, Groningen, Neth.
died Feb. 21, 1926, Leiden

Dutch physicist.

He taught at the University of Leiden (1882–1923), and in 1884 he founded the Cryogenic Laboratory (now known by his name) that established Leiden as the world's principal research centre for low-temperature physics. He was the first to produce liquid helium (1908), and he discovered superconductivity. He also investigated the equations describing the states of matter and the general thermodynamic properties of fluids over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. He was awarded the 1913 Nobel Prize for Physics.

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▪ Dutch physicist
born Sept. 21, 1853, Groningen, Neth.
died Feb. 21, 1926, Leiden
 Dutch winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1913 for his work on low-temperature physics and his production of liquid helium. He discovered superconductivity, the almost total lack of electrical resistance in certain materials when cooled to a temperature near absolute zero.

      From 1871 until 1873 Kamerlingh Onnes studied and worked at Heidelberg University, notably with the German physicists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff. Awarded a doctorate by the University of Groningen (1879), he taught at the Polytechnic School in Delft (1878–1882). From 1882 to 1923 he served as professor of experimental physics at the University of Leiden.

      Influenced by the work of Johannes van der Waals, Kamerlingh Onnes investigated the equations describing the states of matter and studied the general thermodynamic properties of liquids and gases over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. He founded (1894) and built up the Cryogenic Laboratory (now known by his name) that established Leiden as the low-temperature research centre of the world. From 1895 to 1906 he concentrated on perfecting cryogenic experimental techniques and studied metals and fluids at low temperatures. Having built an improved hydrogen-liquefaction machine two years previously, he succeeded in liquefying helium in 1908. His attempts to solidify helium were fruitless until Willem Hendrik Keesom, his student and successor as director of the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, achieved the feat in 1926.

      Kamerlingh Onnes also demonstrated that the resistance of some electrical conductors disappears suddenly at a temperature near absolute zero (−273° C), and he termed this phenomenon “superconductivity.” His systematic researches on superconductivity (begun in 1911) were of extreme importance because of their bearing on the theory of electrical conduction in solids.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Kamerlingh-Onnes , Heike — (1853–1926) Dutch physicist Born at Groningen in the Netherlands, Kamerlingh Onnes was educated at the university there, obtaining his doctorate in 1879. In 1882 he was appointed professor of physics at Leiden, where he remained for the rest of… …   Scientists

  • Kamerlingh-Onnes, Heike — ► (1853 1926) Físico holandés. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1913, por sus trabajos sobre la física de las bajas temperaturas, descubriendo la superconductividad …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike — (21 sept. 1853, Groninga, Países Bajos–21 feb. 1926, Leiden). Físico holandés. Fue profesor en la Universidad de Leiden (1882–1923); en 1884 fundó el Laboratorio criogénico (conocido ahora por su nombre) que erigió a Leiden como el principal… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Kamerlingh-Onnes — Heike …   Scientists

  • Kamerlingh-Onnes — Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes — en 1878 Naissance 21 septembre 1853 Groningue (Pays Bas) Décès 21 février …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kamerlingh Onnes — Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (21 septembre 1853 à Groningue 21 février 1926) était un physicien de nationalité néerlandaise, lauréat du prix Nobel de physique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes — (* 21. September 1853 in Groningen; † 21. Februar 1926 in Leiden) war ein niederländischer Physiker und Nobelpreisträger für Physik. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Heike Kamerlingh Onnes — Heike Kamerlingh Heike Kamerlingh Onnes en 1878 …   Wikipedia Español

  • KAMERLINGH ONNES (H.) — KAMERLINGH ONNES HEIKE (1853 1926) Physicien néerlandais né à Groningue et mort à Leyde. Professeur à l’université de Leyde, prix Nobel de physique (1913), Kamerlingh Onnes fut l’un des créateurs de la physique des basses températures et le… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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