Judah ben Samuel
died 1217Jewish mystic and scholar.He was a member of the Kalonymos family, which provided medieval Germany with many Jewish mystics and spiritual leaders. Around 1195 he settled in Regensburg, where he founded a yeshiva and gathered disciples such as Eleazar ben Judah of Worms. He was the founder of 12th-century German Hasidism, an ultrapious movement not directly related to 18th-century Hasidism. Book of the Pious, a compilation of the writings of Judah, his father, and Eleazar of Worms, offers a detailed manual of conduct for observant Jews; it is one of the most important documents of medieval Judaism.
* * *▪ German Jewish mysticalso called Judah The Ḥasid Of Regensburg, or Yehuda The Ḥasiddied 1217Jewish mystic and semilegendary pietist, a founder of the fervent, ultrapious movement of German Ḥasidism. He was also the principal author of the ethical treatise Sefer Ḥasidim (published in Bologna, 1538; “Book of the Pious”), possibly the most important extant document of medieval Judaism and a major work of Jewish literature. Judah is not to be confused with the commentator Judah Sir Leon of Paris (1166–1224), also called ha-Ḥasid, or the 17th-century messianic enthusiast Judah Ḥasid ha-Levi, nor is the Ḥasidic movement of his time directly related to the 18th-century Ḥasidic movement founded by the Baʿal Shem Ṭov.The facts of Judah's life, like those of other major Jewish mystics, are obscure. He was the son of Samuel the Ḥasid, also a mystic, and belonged to the eminent Kalonymos family, which provided medieval Germany with many of her mystics and spiritual leaders. It is known that in about 1195, possibly because of German persecution, he left Speyer for Regensburg, where he founded a yeshiva (academy) and gathered such disciples as the mystic Eleazar of Worms (also a member of the Kalonymos family) and the codifiers Isaac ben Moses of Vienna and Baruch ben Samuel of Mainz. Most of Judah's life, however, is clothed in legend; e.g., it is stated that he was ignorant of Jewish law until, at 18, sudden enlightenment enabled him to work such miracles as reviving the dead and visiting the prophet Elijah.The Sefer Ḥasidim is a compilation of the writings of Judah, of his father Samuel, and of Judah's disciple Eleazar of Worms. Judah's teachings, however, appear to give a distinctive stamp to the entire work. The treatise, although disorganized and poorly written, is invaluable for giving a realistic picture of the concerns and problems of a medieval Jewish community; religion is revealed in its practical workings, rather than as disembodied theories. Dealing with man's relations with God and his fellowman, his business practices, the sabbath, social intercourse with Gentiles, penitence, and a host of other subjects, the book is a detailed manual of conduct.Judah also wrote a mystic work surviving only in citations dealing with the kavod (“divine glory”), the aspect of God that man can experience, as distinguished from the ultimate reality of God, which is beyond man's experience or comprehension. Judah was also the author of liturgies and responsa (authoritative answers, or responses, to questions of Jewish law).
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JUDAH BEN SAMUEL HE-ḤASID — (c. 1150–1217), main teacher of the Ḥasidei Ashkenaz movement. Judah was one of the most prominent scholars of the Middle Ages in the fields of ethics and theology. He probably lived some time in Speyer and then moved to Regensburg (he was… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg — See Judah he Hasid for other people who used this name. Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg (12th 13th centuries), also called He Hasid or the Pious in Hebrew, was the initiator of the Chassidei Ashkenaz, a movement of Jewish mysticism in Germany.… … Wikipedia
Judah ben Samuel ha-Kohen Cantarini — Judah (Leon) ben Samuel (Simon) ha Kohen Cantarini (ca. 1650, Padua mdash;April 28, 1694, Padua) was an Italian physician and rabbi. He had a large practise among the Christian as well as the Jewish population of that city, visiting the poorer of … Wikipedia
Judah ben Samuel he-Hasid of Regensburg — (c.1150 1217) German rabbi and mystic. He lived in Speyer and later settled in Regensburg. He was one of the most important scholars of the Middle Ages in the fields of ethics and theology, and was the main teacher of the Haside Ashkenaz… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
IBN ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL II — (13th century), religious writer, probably a resident of Spain; to be distinguished from judah ben samuel ibn abbas , the liturgical poet. In the middle of the 13th century Ibn Abbas composed Ya ir Nativ ( Enlightener of the Path ), also known as … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ROSANES, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL — (1657–1727), Turkish rabbi, posek and preacher. Rosanes was born in Constantinople. He studied under R. Solomon ha Levi the Elder and R. Joseph b. Isaiah Trani (grandson of joseph b. moses trani ). In his youth, he worked in the business of… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
LERMA, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL — (middle of the 16th century), scholar of Spanish origin living in Italy. The years of Lerma s birth and death are unknown, and all the information on him relates to the years 1553–56. The place and scope of his activity are also not clear, but… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
SHALOM, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN JUDAH BEN SAMUEL — (d. 1492), Catalonian (Spain) philosopher and translator of philosophical writings. Shalom is known to have translated two works from Latin into Hebrew: a compendium of the physical sciences by albertus magnus , Philosophia Pauperum, under the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
IBN BALʿAM, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL — (Ar. Abu Zakariyyā Yaḥyā; second half of the 11th century), biblical commentator and Hebrew grammarian. Ibn Balʿam came from Toledo from a respected family and settled later in Seville. Moses ibn Ezra, in his poems, extols his critical faculty,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL IBN — ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL IBN, moderate rationalist author active sometime between the 13th and 15th centuries. Ibn Abbas most important contribution was the rationalist ethical and educational work Ya ir Nativ ( He Will Light the Way ). Ibn Abbas… … Encyclopedia of Judaism