James Edward, the Old Pretender

orig. James Francis Edward Stuart

born June 10, 1688, London, Eng.
died Jan. 1, 1766, Rome, Papal States

Claimant to the English and Scottish thrones.

Son of the exiled James II of England, he was raised in France as a Catholic. On the death of his father (1701), he was proclaimed king of England by the French king Louis XIV, but the English Parliament passed a bill of attainder against him. He served with the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the Jacobite uprising (1715), James landed in Scotland, but within two months the uprising collapsed and he returned to France. He lived thereafter in Rome under the pope's patronage. He became known as the "Old Pretender" to distinguish him from his son, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender.

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▪ claimant to English and Scottish thrones
in full  James Francis Edward Stuart  
born June 10, 1688, London, Eng.
died Jan. 1, 1766, Rome, Papal States [Italy]
 son of the deposed Roman Catholic monarch James II of England and claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. Styled James III of England and James VIII of Scotland by his supporters, he made several halfhearted efforts to gain his crown.

      At his birth it was widely and erroneously believed that he was an impostor who was slipped into the queen's bed in a warming pan in order to provide a successor to the Roman Catholic monarch. When the Protestant ruler William of Orange, stadtholder of Holland, deposed James II in 1688, the infant prince was taken to France, where his father set up a court in exile. Upon the death of James II in 1701, the French king Louis XIV proclaimed James king of England. James's adherence to Roman Catholicism caused the English Parliament to pass a bill of attainder against him in 1701.

      In 1708 the Pretender set out in French ships to invade Scotland, but he was driven away by the British before he could land. He distinguished himself fighting in the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). In 1714 he refused to accept suggestions by Robert Harley and Viscount Bolingbroke that he renounce Roman Catholicism and become an Anglican in order to be designated Queen Anne's heir to the throne of England.

      John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar, raised a Jacobite (from the Latin equivalent of the name James) rebellion in Scotland in 1715, and the Pretender landed at Peterhead, Aberdeen, on December 22. By Feb. 10, 1716, the uprising had collapsed and James had returned to France. He passed the remainder of his life in or near Rome.

      In 1719 James married Maria Clementina Sobieska, a granddaughter of John III Sobieski of Poland. They produced two sons, Charles Edward, called the Young Pretender, and Henry, later the cardinal duke of York. Charles Edward precipitated one last, futile Jacobite rebellion in Britain in 1745.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Charles Edward, the Young Pretender — orig. Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir Stuart known as Bonnie Prince Charlie born Dec. 31, 1720, Rome died Jan. 31, 1788, Rome Claimant to the British throne. He was the son of the royal pretender James Edward and grandson of the exiled James… …   Universalium

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