Family of monarchs of Poland-Lithuania, Bohemia, and Hungary that became one of the most powerful in east-central Europe in the 15th–16th centuries.It was founded by Jogaila, grand duke of Lithuania, who became Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland after marriage to Queen Jadwiga (1373?–99) in 1386. Władysław III Warneńczyk (1424–44) extended the dynasty by also assuming the throne of Hungary (1440). He was succeeded by Casimir IV, who placed his son on the thrones of Bohemia (1471) and Hungary. During the reigns of Casimir's sons John Albert (1459–1501) and Alexander (1461–1506), the Jagiellon rulers lost much of their power in Poland to the nobility. When Sigismund I succeeded Alexander in 1506, he strengthened the government and saw the Teutonic Order convert its lands into the secular duchy of Prussia (1525), a Polish fief. In 1526 the death of Louis II ended Jagiellon rule in Bohemia and Hungary. In 1561 Sigismund II Augustus incorporated Livonia into Poland, but when he died, leaving no heirs, the Jagiellon dynasty ended (1572).
* * *▪ European historyfamily of monarchs of Poland-Lithuania, Bohemia, and Hungary that became one of the most powerful in east central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. The dynasty was founded by Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło), the grand duke of Lithuania, who married Queen Jadwiga of Poland in 1386, converted to Christianity, and became King Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. Thus both Poland and Lithuania were united in the person of their sovereign (who soon, however, appointed a grand duke to rule for him in Lithuania). Together they constituted a formidable power, which defeated their major common enemy, the Knights of the Teutonic Order, at the Battle of Tannenberg (Grünfelde; July 15, 1410).The dynasty was threatened with division into separate houses and disruption of the federation after Władysław's brother Swidrygiełło was named to replace his cousin Vytautas (Witold) as grand prince of Lithuania (1430). But Vytautas' brother Sigismund defeated Swidrygiełło and became the grand duke (1434). Then, rather than become divided, the dynasty extended its power; Władysław III Warneńczyk, who succeeded his father as king of Poland in 1434, also assumed the throne of Hungary (as Ulászló I) in 1440. After Władysław was killed fighting the Turks at the Battle of Varna (1444), the Poles elected as their king his brother, Casimir IV, who had succeeded the assassinated Sigismund as grand duke of Lithuania in 1440.Largely sympathetic to the Lithuanian desire for autonomy and determined to create a strong, central royal power, Casimir clashed with the Polish magnates, large landowners who had dominated the earlier Jagiellon reigns, by granting extensive and exclusive rights and privileges to the gentry in order to gain their political and financial support for his active foreign policy. As a result, Casimir was able not only to engage successfully in the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) against the Teutonic Knights, by which he acquired a large portion of their territory, but also to place his son Władysław on the thrones of Bohemia (as Vladislav II; 1471) and Hungary (as Ulászló II; 1490) and to fight the Turks (1485–89), who had disrupted his kingdom's trade by seizing control of the mouths of the Dniester and Danube rivers.During the reigns of Casimir's sons John Albert and Alexander I, however, the Jagiellon rulers lost a large degree of their power in Poland to the nobility (as did Władysław in Bohemia and Hungary); and, by weakening their realm, they exposed it to the aggression of the Teutonic Knights and the state of Muscovy, which expanded into Lithuanian territory.When Sigismund I the Old succeeded his brother Alexander in 1506, the Polish–Lithuanian federation was seriously threatened by foreign invasion as well as by internal decay. Gradually strengthening his government (although not diminishing gentry power), Sigismund used diplomatic means to come to terms with the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian I, who had been encouraging the Teutonic Order and Muscovy to attack Poland and Lithuania. He defeated the Muscovite army at Orsha (1514) and successfully contended with the Teutonic Order so that in 1525 it converted its lands into the secular Duchy of Prussia, which became a Polish fief.Sigismund's nephew Louis II succeeded Władysław as king of Bohemia and Hungary in 1516, but his death at the Battle of Mohács (at which the Turks destroyed the Hungarian monarchy; 1526) brought an end to Jagiellon rule there. Sigismund, on the other hand, improved the political stability of Poland and Lithuania, incorporated Mazovia into his realm (1526), and also promoted the development of Renaissance culture in Poland.Nevertheless, the Polish monarchy continued to lose power to the magnates and gentry, which contended with each other for political dominance; and when Sigismund II Augustus ascended the throne (1548), he was obliged to manoeuvre between the magnates and the gentry while maintaining his father's policy of avoiding foreign conflict. But when Livonia sought his protection from Muscovy and incorporation into his realm (1561), he allied with the gentry to finance the major war against Muscovy, which he entered to secure his control over Livonia and the Baltic seacoast. Since Lithuania could not bear the major burden of the war, he tried to create a firmer union between Poland and Lithuania. In 1569 he arranged for the two countries to enter the Union of Lublin and form a Polish–Lithuanian commonwealth. Three years later Sigismund II Augustus died, leaving no heirs, thereby ending the Jagiellon dynasty.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Jagiellon dynasty — The Jagiellons ( lt. Jogailaičiai, pl. Jagiellonowie) were a royal dynasty originating from Lithuanian House of Gediminas dynasty that reigned in Central European countries (present day Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, Estonia,… … Wikipedia
History of Poland during the Jagiellon dynasty — History of Poland … Wikipedia
dynasty — dynastic /duy nas tik/; Brit. also /di nas tik/, dynastical, adj. dynastically, adv. /duy neuh stee/; Brit. also /din euh stee/, n., pl. dynasties. 1. a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group: the Ming dynasty … Universalium
Casimir IV Jagiellon — Infobox Monarch name=Casimir IV Jagiellon caption=Kazimierz IV date of birth=birth date|1427|11|30|mf=y place of birth=Kraków, Poland date of death=death date and age|1492|6|7|1427|11|30|df=y place of death=Hrodna, modern Belarus place of… … Wikipedia
Anna Jagiellon — This article is about the queen regnant of Poland, for others with similar names, see Anna of Poland (disambiguation). Infobox Polish monarch name=Anna Jagiellon image caption=On a 1595 painting by Marcin Kober, oil on canvas birthdate=birth… … Wikipedia
Jadwiga Jagiellon (1513–1573) — Jadwiga Jagiellon ( lt. Jadvyga Jogailaitė; pl. Jadwiga Jagiellonka) (1513 1573), also known as Hedwig ( de. Hedwig Jagiellonica) was the eldest daughter of King Zygmunt I Stary of Poland and Hungarian princess Barbara Zápolya.Jadwiga was… … Wikipedia
Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt family tree — The family tree of the Egyptian Nineteenth dynasty is the usual mixture of conjecture and interpretation. The family history starts with the appointment of Ramesses I as the successor to Horemheb, the last king of the Eighteenth Dynasty who had… … Wikipedia
Muhammad Ali Dynasty family tree — The Muhammad Ali Dynasty ruled Egypt without interruption from Muhammad Ali s seizure of power in 1805 until the proclamation of the Republic in 1953. Eleven individuals (all of them men) ruled Egypt during the dynasty s 148 year lifespan. Due to … Wikipedia
Piast Dynasty — ▪ Polish ruling family first ruling family of Poland. According to a 12th century legend, when Prince Popiel of Gnesen (now Gniezno) died, in the second half of the 9th century, he was succeeded by Siemowit, the son of the prince s plowman … Universalium
Orontid Dynasty — The Satrapy of Armenia under the Orontid Dynasty. History of Armenia … Wikipedia