Ishmael ben Elisha
flourished 2nd century ADJewish scholar.Born into a wealthy priestly family, he was taken captive by the Roman legions that sacked Jerusalem in AD 70, but he was ransomed by his former teacher and was sent back to Palestine to study. Ishmael founded a rabbinic school and wrote commentaries on the Torah, developing 13 rules of exegesis based on the 7 rules of Hillel. Known for his simple, literal approach to biblical scholarship, he sought to relieve hardship for observant Jews in the interpretation of the Law. He is often portrayed in dispute with Akiba ben Joseph for what he saw as the latter's excessive interpretations of superficial biblical words or phrases.
* * *▪ Jewish scholarflourished 2nd century ADJewish tanna (Talmudic (Talmud and Midrash) teacher) and sage who left an enduring imprint on Talmudic literature and on Judaism. He is generally referred to simply as Rabbi Ishmael.As a young child, Ishmael, whose parentage is not known but who traced his lineage through a high priest, was taken captive and transported to Rome when the second Temple was destroyed at Jerusalem. He was ransomed from Rome by the older tanna and sage, Rabbi Joshua (Joshua ben Hananiah), on one of the latter's trips there. Ishmael was taught by Rabbi Joshua, who reputedly had seen in him, even as a captive, great promise as a teacher of the Jews. He lived and taught in southern Palestine. He was a close colleague of Rabbi Akiba ( Akiba ben Joseph), who also had studied under Rabbi Joshua. Ishmael used set, rational rules and a simple, literal approach to Biblical exposition, and he occasionally upbraided Akiba for the latter's excessive interpretations of superficial Biblical words or phrases. As tanna he was held in affection for his human approach; one of his dicta was, “Receive all men joyfully.” He is remembered for his flexible approach to Judaic practice, and he interpreted the Law so as to mitigate rather than introduce hardship.Ishmael founded a Talmudic school, known simply as “the house of Ishmael,” that is credited with the Midrash, or commentary, on the book of Exodus, the Mekhilta (Measure), and the Sifre (a form of commentary) on Numbers and part of the Sifre on Deuteronomy. Ishmael himself refined the exegetical principles known as the Seven Rules of Hillel and amplified them to thirteen in number.The literature of the tanna period dealing with mysticism mentions Ishmael, and a number of mystical works are attributed to him, including several of the type known as maʿase bereshit (“work of creation”) and several in the genre of maʿase Merkava (“work of the chariot,” a reference to the divine chariot seen by the prophet in Ezekiel I). Maʿase bereshit dealt with mystical cosmology and cosmogony, while maʿase Merkava was the basic element of Jewish mysticism of the era. Ishmael is best remembered, however, for his work as tanna and exegete of the Torah.
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Ishmael ben Elisha — (90 135 CE, commonly known as Rabbi Ishmael, Hebrew: רבי ישמעאל) was a Tanna of the first and second centuries (third tannaitic generation). A Tanna ( plural , Tannaim) is a Jewish rabbinic sage whose views are recorded in the Mishnah.… … Wikipedia
ISHMAEL BEN ELISHA — (first half of the second century C.E.), tanna, the Ishmael generally mentioned without patronymic. Ishmael was one of the sages the stamp of whose personality and teachings had a permanent effect on tannaitic literature and on Judaism as a whole … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Ishmael ben-Elisha — (early 2nd century) Tanna. Ishmael was one of the great sages of the Mishnah. When he was a small boy, he was taken captive by the Romans. Rabbi Joshua, on hearing that a Jewish child was in prison, went there and quoted a biblical passage.… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Ishmael ben Elisha — ( s. II AD). Sabio judío. Nacido en el seno de una acaudalada familia sacerdotal, fue llevado en cautiverio por las legiones romanas que saquearon Jerusalén en 70 AD, pero su antiguo maestro pagó el rescate y fue enviado de regreso a Palestina,… … Enciclopedia Universal
Ishmael ben Elisha — (fl. 2nd cent) Palestinian tanna. He lived at Kephar Aziz. He disputed with Akiva about halakhic and aggadic matters, and expanded to 13 the seven hermeneutical rules laid down by Hillel. He was also one of the leading aggadists of the period … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
Ben — /ben/, n. a male given name, form of Benjamin. * * * (as used in expressions) Akiba ben Joseph Alfasi Isaac ben Jacob Alkalai Judah ben Solomon Hai Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph Israel ben Eliezer Ben Ali Zine el Abidine Ben Bella Ahmed Ben… … Universalium
Ishmael — For other uses, see Ishmael (disambiguation). Ishmael A depiction of Hagar and Ishmael in the desert by François Joseph Navez Prophet, Patriarch, Father of the Arabs, Constructor of the Kaaba, Apostle to Arabi … Wikipedia
Ishmael (disambiguation) — Infobox Given Name Revised name = Ishmael imagesize= caption= pronunciation= gender = Male meaning = region = origin = related names = Ismail footnotes = Ishmael may mean:People: * Ishmael, son of Abraham, in the context of Abrahamic religions *… … Wikipedia
ben — ben1 /ben/, Scot. n. 1. the inner or back room of a two room cottage, esp. when used as a combined parlor and bedroom. adv., prep. 2. within; inside. adj. 3. inside; inner. [1400 50; late ME (Scots); as adv., unexplained var. of late ME bin, ME… … Universalium
ben — ► sustantivo masculino BOTÁNICA Árbol o moringáceo, con tronco recto, flores blancas y cuyo fruto da por presión un aceite que no se enrancia y que se emplea en relojería y perfumería. (Moringa oleifera.) * * * ben1 (pl. «beni») Palabra árabe,… … Enciclopedia Universal