Irgun Zvai Leumi

(Hebrew; "National Military Organization")

Jewish right-wing underground movement that advocated using force to establish a Jewish state on both sides of the Jordan River.

It opposed the British and the Arabs; its activities included a 1946 attack on the King David Hotel that left 91 dead and a 1947 raid on an Arab village in which all 254 inhabitants were killed. In 1943 Menachem Begin became the movement's leader. With Israeli independence its units disbanded. Israel's Herut Party was its political incarnation. See also Likud; Haganah.

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▪ Jewish right-wing underground movement
(Hebrew: National Military Organization),byname  Etzel,  

      Jewish right-wing underground movement in Palestine, founded in 1931. At first supported by many non-Socialist Zionist parties, in opposition to the Haganah, it became in 1936 an instrument of the Revisionist Party, an extreme nationalist group that had seceded from the World Zionist Organization and whose policies called for the use of force, if necessary, to establish a Jewish state on both sides of the Jordan.

      Irgun committed acts of terrorism and assassination against the British, whom it regarded as illegal occupiers, and it was also violently anti-Arab. Irgun also participated in the organization of illegal immigration into Palestine after the publication of the British White Paper on Palestine (1939), which severely limited immigration. Irgun's violent activities led to execution of many of its members by the British; in retaliation, Irgun executed British army hostages.

      Irgun's members were extremely disciplined and daring, and their actions included the capture of ʿAkko (Acre) prison, a medieval fortress that not even Napoleon had succeeded in capturing. In the last days of the British mandate, it captured a large part of the city of Yafo (Jaffa).

      On July 22, 1946, the Irgun blew up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, killing 91 soldiers and civilians (British, Arab, and Jewish). On April 9, 1947, a group of Irgun commandos raided the Arab village of Dayr Yāsīn (modern Kefar Shaʾul), killing all 254 of its inhabitants.

      After the creation of Israel in 1948 the Irgun's last units disbanded and took the oath of loyalty to the Israeli defense forces on Sept. 1, 1948. Politically, it was the precursor of the Ḥerut (Freedom) Party, one of Israel's most militant right-wing groups, later merged with the Liberals into the Gaḥal Party. See also Stern Gang.

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Universalium. 2010.

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