- or HaskalahIntellectual movement in European Judaism in the 18th–19th century, which sought to supplement traditional Talmudic studies with education in secular subjects, European languages, and Hebrew.Partly inspired by the Enlightenment, the Haskala was sometimes called the Jewish Enlightenment. It originated with prosperous and socially mobile Jews, who hoped to use reforms to enable the Jews to escape ghetto life and enter the mainstream of European society and culture. This meant adding secular subjects to the school curriculum, adopting the language of the larger society in place of Yiddish, abandoning traditional garb, and reforming synagogue services. One of its leaders was Moses Mendelssohn, who began a revival of Hebrew writing. Haskala's emphasis on the study of Jewish history and ancient Hebrew as a means of reviving Jewish national consciousness influenced Zionism, and its call to modernize religious practices led to the emergence of Reform Judaism.
* * *▪ Judaic movementalso spelled Haskalah (from Hebrew sekhel, “reason,” or “intellect”) , also called Jewish Enlightenmenta late 18th- and 19th-century intellectual movement among the Jews of central and eastern Europe that attempted to acquaint Jews with the European and Hebrew languages and with secular education and culture as supplements to traditional Talmudic studies. Though the Haskala owed much of its inspiration and values to the European Enlightenment, its roots, character, and development were distinctly Jewish. When the movement began, Jews lived mostly in pales of settlement and ghettoes and followed a form of life that had evolved after centuries of segregation and discriminatory legislation. A move toward change was initiated by a relatively few “mobile Jews” (mainly merchants) and “court Jews” (agents of various rulers and princes), whose contact with European civilization had heightened their desire to become a part of society as a whole. One of the early centres of the movement was Berlin, whence it spread to eastern Europe.The early proponents of Haskala were convinced that Jews could be brought into the mainstream of European culture through a reform of traditional Jewish education and a breakdown of ghetto life. This meant adding secular subjects to the school curriculum, adopting the language of the larger society in place of Yiddish, abandoning traditional garb, reforming synagogue services, and taking up new occupations.Moses Mendelssohn (Mendelssohn, Moses) (1729–86) symbolized the exodus of Jews from ghetto life with his German translation of the Torah (first five books of the Bible), even though the book was printed in Hebrew letters. The revival of Hebrew writing was also given impetus with the publication in 1784 of the first modern Hebrew periodical, a significant attempt to recover a sense of “classical” Jewish civilization. Though basically rationalistic, Haskala also exhibited such romantic tendencies as a desire to return to nature, a high regard for manual work, and an aspiration to revive a glorious and better past. Haskala advocated the study of Jewish history and the ancient Hebrew language as a means of reviving a Jewish national consciousness; these values and attitudes later merged with those of the Jewish nationalist movement known as Zionism. More immediately, Haskala's call to modernize the Jewish religion provided the impetus for the emergence of Reform Judaism in Germany in the early 19th century.Orthodox Judaism opposed the Haskala movement from the start, because its repudiation of the traditional Jewish way of life threatened to destroy the tightly knit fabric of Judaism and to undermine religious observance. There was particular distrust of a rationalistic ideology that seemed to challenge rabbinic orthodoxy and the important role of Talmudic studies in Jewish education. Nonetheless, in due course, even Orthodoxy admitted a minimum of secular studies and the use of local vernaculars. But other fears were justified, for some aspects of the Haskala did in fact lead to assimilation and a weakening of Jewish identity and historical consciousness.The development of the movement varied with the political, social, and cultural conditions of individual countries. In Germany, Yiddish was rapidly abandoned and assimilation was widespread, but interest in Jewish history revived and gave birth to Wissenschaft des Judentums (i.e., modern critical historico-philological Jewish studies). In the Austrian Empire, a Hebrew Haskala developed that promoted Jewish scholarship and literature. The adherents of Haskala fought rabbinic orthodoxy and especially Ḥasidism, the mystical and pietistic tendencies of which were attacked bitterly. In Russia, some followers of Haskala hoped to achieve “improvement of the Jews” by collaborating with the government plan for educational reform, but the increasingly reactionary and anti-Semitic policies of the tsarist regime drove some Jews to support the revolutionary movement, others to support nascent Zionism.Gradually, the impossibility of establishing an integral, worldwide Hebrew culture became evident, and rising anti-Semitism made many of the movement's expectations appear unrealistic. By the end of the 19th century, some ideals of Haskala had become permanent features of Jewish life, while others were abandoned. Modern Jewry is thus unthinkable without reference to Haskala, for it created a middle class that was loyal to historical Jewish traditions and yet part of modern Western civilization.
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Haskala — (השכלה) (auch: Haskalah) entstammt der hebräischen Wortwurzel שכל s k l, woraus unter anderem das Wort Sechel (Verstand) abgeleitet wird. Haskala bedeutet Bildung, Aufklärung und bezeichnet insbesondere die jüdische, von Berlin ausgehende… … Deutsch Wikipedia
HASKALA — Dérivé de l’hébreu sekhel («raison» ou «intellect»), le terme Haskala désigne un mouvement social et culturel dans le judaïsme d’Europe centrale et orientale, à la fin du XVIIIe et au XIXe siècle. Bien qu’inspiré de la philosophie des Lumières,… … Encyclopédie Universelle
haskala — haskàla ž DEFINICIJA pov. židovski prosvjetiteljski pokret (kraj 18. i poč. 19. st., počeo u Njemačkoj 1750. s M. Mendelssohnom, v.), nastojao modernizirati staru židovsku kulturu i prilagoditi židovstvo stanju i kretanjima u tadašnjem građanskom … Hrvatski jezični portal
Haskala — La Haskala (השכלה) est un mouvement de pensée juif du XVIIIe et XIXe siècle, fortement influencé par le mouvement des Lumières. Les promoteurs de la Haskala sont appelés maskilim. Sommaire 1 Introduction 2 La Haskala … Wikipédia en Français
Haskalá — La Haskalá (hebreo: השכלה; Iluminismo educación de la raíz sekhel intelecto , mente ), también conocida como el Iluminismo judío, fue un movimiento que se desarrolló en la comunidad judía europea a fines del siglo XVIII que tomó los valores del… … Wikipedia Español
Haskala — Hạskala [hebräisch »Aufklärung«] die, , Bezeichnung der durch die europäische Aufklärung inspirierten, wirtschaftlich, geistig und sozial motivierten jüdischen Emanzipationsbestrebungen der jüdischen Aufklärer (Maskilim) in West und… … Universal-Lexikon
Haskala — Movimiento intelectual del judaísmo europeo de los s. XVIII–XIX, que buscó complementar los estudios talmúdicos tradicionales con la enseñanza de temas profanos, lenguas europeas y hebreo. Inspirado en parte por la Ilustración, en ocasiones ha… … Enciclopedia Universal
Haskala — Has|ka|la die; <aus hebr. haśk̲alā »Aufklärung« zu śāk̲al »klug werden, Einsicht gewinnen«> durch die Aufklärung inspirierte Bewegung der [gebildeten] Juden seit dem 18. Jh., die das Talmudstudium zurückdrängte u. über das Verlassen des… … Das große Fremdwörterbuch
Haskala-Literatur — Hạskala Literatur, die jüdische Literatur der Aufklärung in hebräischer Sprache von 1780 bis 1880. Als Schöpfer der Haskala Literatur gilt M. Mendelssohn, ihr Zentrum war zunächst Deutschland, später Osteuropa. Ziel der Haskala Literatur war… … Universal-Lexikon
Haskalah — Haskala Les Juifs et le judaïsme Généralités Qui est Juif ? · Terminologie · Conversion Judaïsme : Principes de foi Noms de Dieu dans le judaïsme Tanakh (Bible hébraïque) : Torah · … Wikipédia en Français