Goldschmidt, Victor Moritz

born Jan. 27, 1888, Zürich, Switz.
died March 20, 1947, Oslo, Nor.

Swiss-born Norwegian mineralogist and petrologist.

He became director of the Mineralogical Institute of the University of Kristiania (now Oslo) in 1914. The dearth of raw materials during World War I led Goldschmidt to research in geochemistry. His work in that area, and more general studies after the war, marks the beginnings of modern geochemistry. His Geochemical Laws of the Distribution of the Elements (8 vol., 1923–38) laid the foundations of inorganic crystal chemistry. During the 1930s he studied the relative cosmic abundance of the elements. In 1942 he escaped a Nazi concentration camp and fled to England; after the war he returned to Oslo.

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▪ Swiss mineralogist
born Jan. 27, 1888, Zürich
died March 20, 1947, Oslo
 Swiss-born Norwegian mineralogist and petrologist who laid the foundation of inorganic crystal chemistry and founded modern geochemistry.

      Having moved with his family to Kristiania (now Oslo) in 1900, Goldschmidt became a pupil of the noted Norwegian geologist Waldemar C. Brøgger at the University of Kristiania, where he was appointed professor and director of the Mineralogical Institute in 1914.

      Die Kontaktmetamorphose im Kristianiagebiet (1911; “Contact Metamorphism in the Kristiania Region”), now a classic, embodies Goldschmidt's extensive studies of thermal metamorphism (alteration in rocks because of heat) and made fundamental advances in correlating the mineralogical and chemical composition of metamorphic rocks. A further work, Die Injektionsmetamorphose im Stavangergebiet (1921; “Injection Metamorphism in the Stavanger Region”), related his masterly study of structures created by the penetration of magma or other rock into pre-existing deposits.

      The dearth of raw materials during World War I led Goldschmidt to research in geochemistry. His work in that area, which broadened into more general studies after the war, marks the beginnings of modern geochemistry. Out of these studies grew the Geochemische Verteilungsgesetze der Elemente (8 vol., 1923–38; “The Geochemical Laws of the Distribution of the Elements”), a work that formed the foundation of inorganic crystal chemistry.

      In 1929 Goldschmidt joined the faculty of the University of Göttingen in Germany, but six years later anti-Semitism, coupled with the Nazi rise to power in Germany, led him to resign his post and return to Norway. Using data from geochemistry, astrophysics, and nuclear physics, he worked on an estimate of the relative cosmic abundances of the elements and attempted to find a relationship between the stability of the different isotopes and their occurrence in the universe. In other studies he showed that the size of the constituent atoms was of prime importance in explaining mineral composition and that crystal hardness is determined by the distance between and the charge of adjacent ions (charged atoms).

      After the German occupation of Norway, Goldschmidt was arrested twice and was finally interned in a concentration camp. In late 1942 he escaped to Sweden, and the following spring he arrived in Great Britain. There he worked first for the Macaulay Institute for Soil Research, Aberdeen, and then for the Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden. After the war he returned to Oslo.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Goldschmidt , Victor Moritz — (1888–1947) Swiss–Norwegian chemist Goldschmidt, the son of H.J. Goldschmidt, a physical chemist, was born at Zurich in Switzerland. He attended Christiania (now Oslo) University where he obtained his PhD in 1911, remaining in Norway as director… …   Scientists

  • Goldschmidt, Victor Moritz — (27 ene. 1888, Zurich, Suiza–20 mar. 1947, Oslo, Noruega). Mineralogista y petrologista noruego nacido en Suiza. Llegó a ser director del Instituto mineralógico de la Universidad de Cristianía (ahora Oslo) en 1914. La escasez de materias primas… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Goldschmidt, Victor Moritz — (1888 1947)    Norwegian mineralogist. Born in Zurich, he studied at Heidelberg and at the University of Christiania. He was an instructor at the University of Christiania, and became a professor at the Mineralogical Institute. Later he taught at …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Victor Moritz Goldschmidt — Victor Goldschmidt (chimiste) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Victor Goldschmidt et Goldschmidt. Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (né le 27 janvier 1888 à Zurich, mort le 20 mars 1947 à Oslo) est un chimiste considéré comme le co fondateur avec… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR — (1853–1933), German crystallographer and inventor. Goldschmidt, who was born in Mainz, was appointed teacher at Heidelberg University in 1888, and professor in 1893. Among his publications were Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien (3 vols.,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • Victor Moritz Goldschmidt — (* 27. Januar 1888 in Zürich; † 20. März 1947 in Vestre Aker bei Oslo) war ein bedeutender Geochemiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werk 3 Siehe auch …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Victor goldschmidt (chimiste) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Victor Goldschmidt et Goldschmidt. Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (né le 27 janvier 1888 à Zurich, mort le 20 mars 1947 à Oslo) est un chimiste considéré comme le co fondateur avec Vladimir Vernadski de la géochimie… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • GOLDSCHMIDT (V. M.) — GOLDSCHMIDT VICTOR MORITZ (1888 1947) Minéralogiste et pétrologue norvégien, né à Zurich, Victor Moritz Goldschmidt a jeté les bases de la cristallochimie minérale et créé la géochimie moderne. Sa première publication, maintenant classique, Die… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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