- Gentile, Giovanni
died April 15, 1944, FlorenceItalian philosopher, sometimes called the "philosopher of fascism." A university professor, he and Benedetto Croce edited the journal La Critica (1903–22). He served in education posts in Benito Mussolini's government. His philosophy of "actual idealism," strongly influenced by G.W.F. Hegel, denied the existence of individual minds and of any distinction between theory and practice, subject and object, past and present. He planned and edited the Enciclopedia Italiana (1936) and wrote prolifically on education and philosophy. Among his works are The Reform of Education (1920), The Philosophy of Art (1931), and My Religion (1943). He was killed by antifascist communists.
* * *▪ Italian philosopherborn May 30, 1875, Castelvetrano, Italydied April 15, 1944, Florencemajor figure in Italian idealist philosophy, politician, educator, and editor, sometimes called the “philosopher of fascism.” His “actual idealism” shows the strong influence of G.W.F. Hegel.After a series of university appointments, Gentile in 1917 became professor of the history of philosophy at the University of Rome. While writing La filosofia di Marx (1899; “The Philosophy of Marx”), a Hegelian examination of Karl Marx's philosophy, he met Benedetto Croce, and from 1903 to 1922 the two men coedited the periodical La Critica. Gentile influenced Croce's philosophy and remained his friend until 1924, when a lasting disagreement arose over Gentile's embrace of Fascism.As minister of education in the Fascist government of Italy from October 1922 to July 1924, Gentile carried out wide reforms. In 1925 he served as president of two commissions on constitutional reform, thus helping to lay the foundations of the Fascist corporate state. After acting as president of the Supreme Council of Public Education (1926–28) and as a member of the Fascist Grand Council (1925–29), he saw his political influence steadily decline. Perhaps his most important achievement was the Enciclopedia Italiana (first edition completed in 1936), which he began to plan in 1925 and edited until 1943. After the fall of Benito Mussolini in 1943, Gentile supported the Fascist Social Republic established by the Germans at Salò and was made the president of the Academy of Italy, in which post he served until his death at the hands of anti-Fascist communists.Gentile's idealist philosophy denied the existence of individual minds and of any distinction between theory and practice, subject and object, past and present. According to him, all of these categories are merely mental constructs. Mind is the Absolute, and education is the process of revelation of the Absolute.Gentile was highly esteemed by his students, whose views he helped to publicize through Giornale critico della filosofia italiana (“Critical Journal of Italian Philosophy”).In addition to his editions of Italian philosophers (including Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella, Giambattista Vico, and Vincenzo Cuoco), Gentile wrote prolifically in education and philosophy. Among his works are Le origini della filosofia contemporanea in Italia, 4 vol. (1917–23); La riforma dell'educazione (1920; The Reform of Education); La filosofia dell'arte (1931; The Philosophy of Art); and La mia religione (1943; “My Religion”). His “actual idealism” is the subject of Teoria generale dello spirito come atto puro (1916; The Theory of Mind as Pure Act).
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Gentile, Giovanni — (1875–1944) Born in Trapani (Sicily), Giovanni Gentile was both a philosopher of great distinction and a cultural propagandist on behalf of the Fascist regime. His early studies were done at Italy’s most renowned institute of higher education … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Gentile, Giovanni — (1875–1944) Italian philosopher. Born in Sicily, Gentile followed a career in education before becoming professor of history of philosophy at Palermo in 1906. He taught at Pisa, was Minister of Education in Mussolini s government in 1922, and in… … Philosophy dictionary
Gentile, Giovanni — See Idealism (italian) and after … History of philosophy
Gentile, Giovanni — ► (1875 1944) Filósofo y político italiano. Creador de una tendencia filosófica llamada actualismo. Fue director de la Enciclopedia Italiana. * * * (30 may. 1875, Castelvetrano, Italia–15 abr. 1944, Florencia). Filósofo italiano, a veces llamado… … Enciclopedia Universal
Gentile, Giovanni — (Castelvetrano, Trapani 1875 Firenze 1944) filosofo, teorico dell’attualismo; fondatore del “Giornale critico della filosofia italiana”, direttore de “La Nuova Antologia”; direttore dell’“Enciclopedia italiana” e presidente dell’Accademia… … Dizionario biografico elementare del Novecento letterario italiano
Gentile — Gentile, Giovanni … Philosophy dictionary
Giovanni Gentile — (* 30. Mai 1875 in Castelvetrano, Provinz Trapani, Sizilien; † 15. April 1944 in Florenz) war ein italienischer Philosoph, Kulturmanager und Politiker. Fotografisches Portrait Gentiles Im öffentlichen Bewusstsein vor allem Italiens wird … Deutsch Wikipedia
Giovanni Gentile — (Castelvetrano, 30 de mayo de 1875 Florencia, 15 de abril de 1944) fue un filósofo italiano. Después de sus estudios de filosofía, a partir de 1906 se dedicó a ser profesor universitario. En ese mismo año empezó a colaborar con … Wikipedia Español
Gentile — Gentile, Giovanni * * * (as used in expressions) Gentile da Fabriano Gentile di Niccolò di Massio Gentile, Giovanni … Enciclopedia Universal
GENTILE (G.) — GENTILE GIOVANNI (1875 1944) Ancien élève de l’École normale supérieure de Pise, Gentile enseigne dès 1903 la philosophie aux universités de Naples, de Palerme et de Rome. Il est, après Benedetto Croce, le représentant le plus éminent de la… … Encyclopédie Universelle