Gemistus Plethon, George
born с 1355, Constantinopledied 1450/52, Mistra, MoreaByzantine philosopher and humanist scholar.He served as lay theologian with the Byzantine delegation to the 1438–45 general council of Ferrara-Florence. His treatise On the Difference Between Aristotle and Plato revived interest in Plato and led to founding of the Platonic Academy of Florence by Cosimo I. His clarification of the distinction between Platonic and Aristotelian thought proved seminal in determining the philosophic orientation of the Italian Renaissance.
* * *▪ Byzantine philosopherPlethon also spelled Plethoborn c. 1355, , Constantinopledied 1450/52, Mistra, MoreaByzantine philosopher and humanist scholar whose clarification of the distinction between Platonic and Aristotelian thought proved to be a seminal influence in determining the philosophic orientation of the Italian Renaissance.Plethon studied in Constantinople and at the Ottoman Muslim court in nearby Adrianople. He founded a school of esoteric religious philosophy at Mistra, an important citadel in the Peloponnesus, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He served as a consultant and composed proposals on social and governmental reform for the emperors Manuel II Palaeologus (reigned 1391–1425) and John VIII Palaeologus (1425–48). Most importantly, Plethon served as lay theologian with the Byzantine delegation to the 1438–45 general Council of Ferrara–Florence, which had been convened to reunite the Latin and Greek churches confronted by the rapid encroachment of the Ottoman Turks upon Constantinople.Concerned more with the advancement of Neoplatonic philosophy than with religious questions, Plethon delivered to the Florentine humanists at the Council of Ferrara–Florence his treatise “On the Difference Between Aristotle and Plato.” This work fired the humanists with a new interest in Plato (who had been ignored in the West during the Middle Ages because of the preoccupation with Aristotle) and inspired Cosimo de' Medici with the project of founding the Platonic Academy of Florence. Plethon also introduced the Geography of Strabo to the West (where it had hitherto been unknown) and led the way to the overthrow of Ptolemy's erroneous geographical theories. He thus greatly affected the Renaissance conception of the configuration of the Earth and so played an important, if indirect, role in the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, who cited Strabo among his principal authorities.On returning to the Peloponnesus, Plethon wrote his “Code of Laws,” evocative of Plato's Laws, in which he set forth a social and political utopia modeled on classic Athenian culture and integrating with it elements of Platonism, Stoicism, Islāmic fatalism, and emperor worship. Plethon also composed orations and essays on Zoroaster, astronomy, music, history, rhetoric, and various theological subjects. Nearly all of his writing is marked by passionate devotion to Greece and a desire to restore its ancient glory.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Gemistus Plethon — See Plethon, George Gemistos … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
George — /jawrj/, n. 1. a figure of St. George killing the dragon, esp. one forming part of the insignia of the Order of the Garter. 2. Brit. Slang. any coin bearing the image of St. George. 3. a word formerly used in communications to represent the… … Universalium
Gemistus Pletho — Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho), in Greek Γεώργιος Πλήθων Γεμιστός, (c. 1355 – 1452or 1454 ) was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher and scholar, one of the chief pioneers of the revival of Greek learning in Western Europe. Biography He was a … Wikipedia
George Of Trebizond — ▪ Byzantine humanist born 1396, Candia, Crete [now Iráklion, Greece] died 1486, Rome [Italy] Byzantine humanist, Greek scholar, and Aristotelian polemist. His academic influence in Italy and within the papacy, his theories on grammar and… … Universalium
Gemiste Pléthon — Portrait de Gémiste Pléthon fait par son contemporain, Benozzo Gozzoli (1420 1497), Palais Médici Riccardi (Florence) Philosophe néo platonicien, Georges Gémiste, dit Pléthon, fut l’un des penseurs les plus originaux de son temps. Né entre 1355… … Wikipédia en Français
humanism — /hyooh meuh niz euhm/ or, often, /yooh /, n. 1. any system or mode of thought or action in which human interests, values, and dignity predominate. 2. devotion to or study of the humanities. 3. (sometimes cap.) the studies, principles, or culture… … Universalium
Platonism — Platonist, n., adj. /playt n iz euhm/, n. 1. the philosophy or doctrines of Plato or his followers. 2. a Platonic doctrine or saying. 3. the belief that physical objects are impermanent representations of unchanging Ideas, and that the Ideas… … Universalium
Greece, history of — ▪ Byzantine to modern Introduction history of the area from the Byzantine (Byzantine Empire) period, beginning about AD 300, to the present. For earlier periods, see Aegean civilizations; ancient Greek civilization; and Hellenistic Age.… … Universalium
John VIII Palaeologus — born Dec. 17/18, 1392 died Oct. 31, 1448, Constantinople Byzantine emperor (1421–48). The son of Manuel II Palaeologus, he was crowned coemperor with his father in 1408 and took effective control of the empire in 1421. He became sole emperor… … Universalium
Philosophy (The) of the Italian Renaissance — The philosophy of the Italian Renaissance Jill Kraye TWO CULTURES: SCHOLASTICISM AND HUMANISM IN THE EARLY RENAISSANCE Two movements exerted a profound influence on the philosophy of the Italian Renaissance: scholasticism and humanism, both of… … History of philosophy