Fuseli, Henry

orig. Johann Heinrich Füssli

born Feb. 7, 1741, Zürich, Switz.
died April 16, 1825, London, Eng.

Swiss-born British painter and writer on art.

The son of a portrait painter, he trained in theology as well as in art and art history. He left his native Zürich for London in 1764. Encouraged by Sir Joshua Reynolds, he went to Italy in 1770 and stayed for eight years; on his return to England, his works exhibited at the Royal Academy, such as his most famous work, The Nightmare (1781), secured his reputation. His subject matter was chiefly literary, and his images portrayed macabre fantasies and the grotesque. He was elected a full academician in 1790 and taught painting at the academy (1799–1805).

* * *

▪ Swiss painter
original name  Johann Heinrich Füssli  
born Feb. 7, 1741, Zürich, Switz.
died April 16, 1825, Putney Hill, London, Eng.

      Swiss-born artist whose paintings are among the most dramatic, original, and sensual works of his time.

      Fuseli was reared in an intellectual and artistic milieu and initially studied theology. Obliged to flee Zürich because of political entanglements, he went first to Berlin, and then settled in London in 1764. He was encouraged to become a painter by Sir Joshua Reynolds (Reynolds, Sir Joshua), and he left England in 1770 to study in Italy, where he stayed until 1778. During his stay in Rome he studied the works of Michelangelo and classical art, which became his major stylistic influences.

      Fuseli is famous for his paintings and drawings of nude figures caught in strained and violent poses suggestive of intense emotion. He also had a penchant for inventing macabre fantasies, such as that in The Nightmare (1781). Always drawn to literary and theatrical subjects, Fuseli developed a special interest in illustrating Shakespeare (Shakespeare, William). He was one of the original contributing artists to John Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery, for which he painted a number of works (1786–89). He had a noticeable influence on the style of his younger contemporary, William Blake (Blake, William).

      In 1788 Fuseli was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, becoming a full academician two years later. During 1799–1805 and again from 1810 he was professor of painting at the Royal Academy. He was appointed keeper of the Academy in 1804.

Additional Reading
Peter Tomory, The Life and Art of Henry Fuseli (1972); Martin Myrone, Henry Fuseli (2001); and Martin Myrone, Christopher Frayling, and Marina Warner, Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake, and the Romantic Imagination (2006).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.