Post–World War I controversy over control of the Adriatic port of Fiume (modern Rijeka, Croatia).The secret Treaty of London (1915) had assigned Fiume to Yugoslavia, but the Italians claimed it at the Paris Peace Conference. In 1919 Gabriele D'Annunzio mustered a small force and occupied Fiume. After Italy concluded the Treaty of Rapallo (1920) with Yugoslavia, which provided for a free state, it sent a battleship to scare him off. When Benito Mussolini came to power, he pressed for a new treaty (1924) that recognized Fiume as Italian and the suburb of Susak as Yugoslav. After World War II, Fiume became part of Yugoslavia.
* * *▪ European historypost-World War I controversy between Italy and Yugoslavia over the control of the Adriatic port of Fiume (known in Croatia as Rijeka; q.v.).Although the secret Treaty of London (April 26, 1915) had assigned Fiume to Yugoslavia, the Italians claimed it at the Paris Peace Conference on the principle of self-determination. Ignoring the suburb of Susak, which had 11,000 Yugoslavs and 1,500 Italians, they claimed that the rest of Fiume had 22,488 Italians against 13,351 Yugoslavs and certain others. On Sept. 12. 1919, the Italian nationalist poet Gabriele D'Annunzio (D'Annunzio, Gabriele), who had mustered a body of men near Trieste, occupied Fiume and proclaimed himself the “commandant” of the “Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro.” The Italian government, however, on concluding the Treaty of Rapallo (Nov. 12, 1920) with Yugoslavia, resolved to turn D'Annunzio out of Fiume. Giovanni Giolitti (Giolitti, Giovanni), the Italian premier, ordered the battleship “Andrea Doria” to shell D'Annunzio's palace only, predicting that the surprise would cause the “commandant” to escape at once—as indeed it did. Riccardo Zanella, the next premier, supported Count Carlo Sforza's (Sforza, Carlo, Conte) solution of the problem, namely a free state of Fiume-Rijeka with an Italo-Fiuman-Yugoslav consortium for the port; and such a solution was approved by the Fiuman electorate on April 24, 1921. But when the Fascists gained power in Italy, the Rapallo Plan for a free state came to nothing. Pressed by Benito Mussolini (Mussolini, Benito), the Yugoslav government yielded, and a new Italo-Yugoslav treaty, signed in Rome on Jan. 27, 1924, recognized Fiume itself as Italian while Susak became Yugoslav.After World War II, by the Treaty of Paris (Feb. 10, 1947), all of Fiume became part of Yugoslavia.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
question — questioner, n. /kwes cheuhn/, n. 1. a sentence in an interrogative form, addressed to someone in order to get information in reply. 2. a problem for discussion or under discussion; a matter for investigation. 3. a matter of some uncertainty or… … Universalium
Free State of Fiume — Infobox Former Country native name = Stato libero di Fiume Slobodna Država Rijeka conventional long name = Free State of Fiume common name = Rijeka continent = Europe region = Mediterranean status = City state era = Interwar period event start =… … Wikipedia
Italy — /it l ee/, n. a republic in S Europe, comprising a peninsula S of the Alps, and Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and other smaller islands: a kingdom 1870 1946. 57,534,088; 116,294 sq. mi. (301,200 sq. km). Cap.: Rome. Italian, Italia. * * * Italy… … Universalium
D'Annunzio, Gabriele — born March 12, 1863, Pescara, Italy died March 1, 1938, Gardone Riviera, on Lake Garda Italian writer and military hero. He was a journalist before turning to poetry and fiction. His prodigious output includes The Child of Pleasure (1898),… … Universalium
international relations — a branch of political science dealing with the relations between nations. [1970 75] * * * Study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities (e.g., bureaucracies and political… … Universalium
Traite de Rapallo (1920) — Traité de Rapallo (1920) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Traité de Rapallo. Le premier traité de Rapallo signé le 12 novembre 1920 est un accord par lequel l Italie et la Yougoslavie établissent les frontières des deux royaumes et leur… … Wikipédia en Français
Traité de Rapallo (1920) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Traité de Rapallo. Le premier traité de Rapallo signé le 12 novembre 1920 est un accord par lequel l Italie et la Yougoslavie établissent les frontières des deux royaumes et leur respective souveraineté, dans une … Wikipédia en Français
Histoire De L'Italie De L'unification À La Première Guerre Mondiale — Royaume d Italie (1861 1946) Royaume d Italie Regno d Italia (it) ↓ … Wikipédia en Français
Italie fasciste — Royaume d Italie (1861 1946) Royaume d Italie Regno d Italia (it) ↓ … Wikipédia en Français
L'Italie après l'unification (1871-1915) — Royaume d Italie (1861 1946) Royaume d Italie Regno d Italia (it) ↓ … Wikipédia en Français