* * *Ir·bil (îrʹbĭl)See Arbil.
* * *▪ ancient city, Iraqancient town, northern Iraq. It is situated 48 miles (77 km) east of Mosul in the foothills of the mountains that rise to the east. It is a trade centre for agricultural produce. A rail terminus, it is also linked by roads to Turkey, Syria, and Iran.Irbīl is one of the oldest continuously inhabited towns in the world. The modern town occupies the top of the tell (mound formed by successive building over a long period of time), rising about 100 feet (30 metres) above the level of the plain. The town was mentioned in the late 3rd-millennium-BC correspondence of Shulgi, king of Ur, as Urbillum, and later it was known as Arba-ilu by the Assyrians. It was a centre of communication in the Assyrian empire and long remained a crossroads of caravan routes. In the Battle of Gaugamela (Gaugamela, Battle of), also known as the Battle of Arbela, fought near the town in 331 BC, Alexander the Great decisively defeated Darius III, opening the way for his conquest of Persia. The town became Christian at an early date, and, later (AD 340), Christians were persecuted there. The Muslim conquest in the 7th century did not prevent Irbīl from remaining an active centre of Christianity and the seat of a bishopric. Muẓaffar al-Dīn, brother-in-law of Saladin, made Irbīl his capital from 1190 until 1232 and constructed several buildings that can still be seen at the foot of the upper town. Irbīl lost its major importance to Mosul in the 13th century but remained a leading town in the region. The population is still a mixture of Christians and Sunnite Muslim Kurds. The University of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn in Irbīl was founded in 1968; there is also a technical institute (founded 1976) devoted to agriculture. The crops grown in the surrounding area include sesame, corn (maize), millet, and fruit. Pop. (2003 est.) 1,100,000.
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IRBIL — (or Erbil; formerly Arbil), one of the four important towns of Assyria and now situated in Iraq to the E. of mosul , in the fertile plain between the Great Zab and the Small Zab. A Jewish community existed in Irbil continuously from the end of… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Irbil — Irbil, Stadt in Nordirak, Erbil … Universal-Lexikon
Irbil — [ʉr′bil] city in N Iraq, on the site of ancient ARBELA: pop. 486,000 … English World dictionary
Irbil — (Arbil, Erbil) Irbil was already an ancient city in 331 BCE when Alexander the Great defeated the Persian king Darius some 120 kilometers northwest of there. Currently, Irbil is the largest city in and the capital of the Kurdistan Regional… … Historical Dictionary of the Kurds
Irbīl — geographical name see arbil … New Collegiate Dictionary
Irbil — Erbil Portail du Kurdistan Erbil (ku) Hewlêr … Wikipédia en Français
Irbil — ► Prov. del N de Irak; 14 471 km2 y 770 439 h. Cap., la c. homónima (333 900 h), que data del tercer milenio a C … Enciclopedia Universal
irbil — En las noticias sobre la ocupación del Kurdistán por las tropas iraquíes aparecía continuamente el nombre de la capital de ese territorio … Diccionario español de neologismos
Irbīl — /ˈɪəbəl/ (say earbuhl) noun → Erbil … Australian English dictionary
2004 Irbil bombings — Infobox terrorist attack title=2004 Irbil bombing caption=Damaged PUK headquarters location=Irbil, Iraq target=Headquarters of PUK and KDP date=February 16 2004 type=Suicide bombings fatalities=117 injuries=133 perps=Al Qaeda in IraqCampaignbox… … Wikipedia