Eleazar ben Judah of Worms
orig. Eleazar ben Judah ben Kalonymosdied 1238, WormsGerman Jewish mystic and Talmudic scholar.His wife and daughters were killed by Crusaders in 1196, but he nevertheless continued to teach a doctrine of love of humanity. After studying with Judah ben Samuel, to whom he was related, he became a rabbi at Worms (1201). Eleazar attempted to unify the mysticism of the Kabbala with the Talmud. His greatest work was his ethical code, Rokeah (1505). He believed that God himself was unknowable but that the kavod, a ruling angel that was an emanation from God, was knowable. His writings are a major source of information on medieval Hasidism.
* * *▪ German rabbioriginal name Eleazar Ben Judah Ben Kalonymos, also called Eleazar Rokeaḥborn c. 1160, , Mainz, Franconia [Germany]died 1238, WormsJewish rabbi, mystic, Talmudist, and codifier. Along with the Sefer Ḥasidim (1538; “Book of the Pious”), of which he was a coauthor, his voluminous works are the major extant documents of medieval German Ḥasidism (an ultrapious sect that stressed prayer and mysticism).Eleazar was a member of the eminent Kalonymos family, which gave medieval Germany many of its spiritual leaders and mystics; another member of that family, the semilegendary pietist Judah ben Samuel the Ḥasid of Regensburg, was his teacher and spiritual master. Eleazar's wife conducted a business so that he could devote himself to his studies. In 1196 two Christian crusaders broke into his house and, before his eyes, murdered his wife and two daughters. In spite of this horrendous experience, he continued to teach a doctrine of love of humanity. He became a rabbi at Worms in 1201 and in 1223 took part in a synod at Mainz, which considered such questions as business relations with Christians and the inequitable exemptions of particularly favoured Jews from the tax imposed by the government.Eleazar was a man of great erudition who did not compartmentalize his knowledge of Kabbalism (the influential body of Jewish mystical writings) and the Talmud (the rabbinical compendium of law, lore, and commentary); rather, he tried to unify these opposing aspects of Judaism in his writings, often with strange results.His greatest work is his ethical code Rokeaḥ (1505; “Dealer in Spice”), for which he is sometimes known as Eleazar Rokeaḥ. The work is prefaced with a number of chapters dealing with the essential principles of Judaism, in which Eleazar attempts to explain mystical concepts, including the unity of God, in terms of Halakha (Law). The work itself, which is not complete, contains some 497 sections addressed to every aspect of Jewish life, from sabbath law, holiday rituals, and marriage ceremony to penance for sins, the latter a preoccupation of the German Ḥasidim, in common with medieval Christianity.Eleazar was an angelologist (angel and demon), not only in his mystic theories of theurgy (the art of persuading or compelling supernatural beings to one's bidding) but also in his writings on the kavod (“divine glory”), a concept also shared by his master, Judah ben Samuel the Ḥasid, who wrote a mystical work, existing only in citations, on the subject. Eleazar believed that the kavod, a ruling angel, was an emanation from God and the knowable aspect of him, while God himself was infinitely transcendent and unknowable. Eleazar also wrote tosafot (commentaries) on a number of Talmudic tractates, as well as mystical commentaries on the five scrolls (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther) and on the Pentateuch (five books of Moses).
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ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH OF WORMS — (c. 1165–c. 1230), scholar in the fields of halakhah, theology, and exegesis in medieval Germany. Eleazar was the last major scholar of the Ḥasidei Ashkenaz movement (see Ḥasidei Ashkenaz ). Born in Mainz, he traveled and studied in many of the… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Eleazar ben Judah de Worms — orig. Eleazar ben Judah ben Kalonymos (1160, Mainz, Franconia–1238, Worms). Místico judío alemán y estudioso del Talmud. Su esposa e hijas fueron asesinadas por los cruzados en 1196; sin embargo, continuó enseñando una doctrina de amor a la… … Enciclopedia Universal
Eleazar ben Judah of Worms (Rokeah, Eleazar) — (c.1165 c.1230) German talmudist, kabbalist and liturgical poet. Born in Mainz, he spent most of his life in Worms. He witnessed the murder by crusaders of his wife and children. He published works on halakhah, liturgical poetry, theology,… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
ELEAZAR BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN OF WUERZ-BURG — (mid 13th century), one of the later writers of the hasidei ashkenaz from the school of judah b. samuel he Hasid and eleazar of Worms. His father Moses was Judah s brother in law. None of his writings has been published. Two of his works, however … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Ben — /ben/, n. a male given name, form of Benjamin. * * * (as used in expressions) Akiba ben Joseph Alfasi Isaac ben Jacob Alkalai Judah ben Solomon Hai Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph Israel ben Eliezer Ben Ali Zine el Abidine Ben Bella Ahmed Ben… … Universalium
Worms — es una ciudad de Alemania, en la región de Renania Palatinado, a orillas del río Rin. Su población es de cerca de 80.000 habitantes. La ciudad presume de una catedral románica (siglos XII XIII). El concordato firmado en Worms en septiembre de… … Enciclopedia Universal
Judah ben Samuel — died 1217 Jewish mystic and scholar. He was a member of the Kalonymos family, which provided medieval Germany with many Jewish mystics and spiritual leaders. Around 1195 he settled in Regensburg, where he founded a yeshiva and gathered disciples… … Universalium
Judah — /jooh deuh/, n. 1. the fourth son of Jacob and Leah. Gen. 29:35. 2. one of the 12 tribes of Israel traditionally descended from him. 3. the Biblical kingdom of the Hebrews in S Palestine, including the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Cf. Ephraim… … Universalium
ben — ben1 /ben/, Scot. n. 1. the inner or back room of a two room cottage, esp. when used as a combined parlor and bedroom. adv., prep. 2. within; inside. adj. 3. inside; inner. [1400 50; late ME (Scots); as adv., unexplained var. of late ME bin, ME… … Universalium
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