Eight, The

Group of U.S. painters who reacted against the traditions of the National Academy of Design.

The original eight
Robert Henri, Everett Shinn (1876–1953), John Sloan, Arthur B. Davies (1862–1928), Ernest Lawson (1873–1939), Maurice Prendergast, George Luks (1867–1933), and William Glackens
were later joined by George Wesley Bellows. In 1908 they exhibited together in New York City. Saloons, tenements, pool halls, and slums were among their favourite subjects, and their style was rough and realistic. Their careers took various directions, and a few years later they were absorbed into the Ash Can school.

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▪ American artist group
      group of American painters who exhibited together only once, in New York City in 1908, but who established one of the main currents in 20th-century American painting. The original Eight included Robert Henri (Henri, Robert), leader of the group, Everett Shinn, John Sloan (Sloan, John French), Arthur B. Davies (Davies, Arthur B.), Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast (Prendergast, Maurice Brazil), George Luks (Luks, George), and William J. Glackens (Glackens, William J.). George Bellows (Bellows, George Wesley) later joined them. The group's determination to bring art into closer touch with everyday life greatly influenced the course of American art.

      Reacting against an American academic and aesthetic tradition that was subservient to European aesthetics, the members of The Eight established their own artistic society in the bustling neighbourhoods of New York and set out to create a native American painting. Luks, Sloan, Glackens, and Shinn worked as newspaper illustrator-cartoonists. They and the four other artists used the teeming life they found in New York as the subject of their art, presenting unidealized views of city life in the saloons, tenements, pool halls, and slums. Some members of The Eight adopted a rough, realistic style, utilizing flashy brushwork on a dark ground in a manner reminiscent of Édouard Manet (Manet, Édouard), Gustave Courbet (Courbet, Gustave), and the German Düsseldorf school. Other members took different directions: Prendergast utilized the decorative patterns of colour he found in the work of the French Nabi (Nabis) group in his translations of the American landscape; Davies painted dreamy, twilight scenes evolved from lyrical allegories rather than from contemporary life; Lawson adopted a style that was lyrically atmospheric. In spite of such deviations in style, the artists banded together for a group show in 1908 at the Macbeth Gallery, organizing it as a direct reaction against slights by the National Academy of Design. The show was well-attended but received mixed reviews: while some critics admired the daring of the work, more were shocked by what they saw as poor draftsmanship and dreary subject matter.

      A few years after their only joint exhibition, the eight painters were absorbed into a larger group called the Ashcan School, which included Bellows, Edward Hopper (Hopper, Edward), Glenn Coleman, Eugene Higgins, and Jerome Myers. The Ashcan school, whose principles and aims were similar to those of The Eight, further paved the way for the development of a vital and native trend in American painting of the 20th century.

Additional Reading
The Eight (1943), published by the Brooklyn Museum Press; Elizabeth Milroy, Painters of a New Century: The Eight & American Art (1991).

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Universalium. 2010.

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