Edelman, Gerald Maurice
- born July 1, 1929, New York, N.Y., U.S.U.S. biochemist.He received an M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and a Ph.D. from Rockefeller University. His work with Rodney Porter (b. 1917d. 1985) on antibodies won a 1972 Nobel Prize. By modeling an entire antibody molecule, Edelman's team found the molecule had more than 1,300 amino acids in a four-chain structure and identified the locations where antigens bind. Focusing on formation and differentiation of tissues and organs, they discovered cell-adhesion molecules, proteins that attach cells together to make tissues. Edelman's attempt at a general theory of neural development and brain function is discussed in his Neural Darwinism (1987).
* * *▪ American physical chemistborn July 1, 1929, New York, N.Y., U.S.American physician and physical chemist who elucidated the structure of antibodies (antibody)—proteins that are produced by the body in response to infection. For this work he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1972 with British biochemist Rodney Porter (Porter, Rodney Robert). Edelman also made significant contributions to developmental biology and neurobiology.Edelman received his M.D. degree from the University of Pennsylvania (1954) and then served two years in the Army Medical Corps in Paris. During that time he became intrigued by questions concerning the immune system, and upon his return to the United States he enrolled at Rockefeller Institute (now called Rockefeller University) in New York City. He earned his Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 1960 and continued his immunological research as a member of the faculty at Rockefeller, becoming a full professor in 1966.As a graduate student, Edelman began to study antibodies, and by 1969 he and his colleagues had constructed a precise model of an antibody molecule. Edelman's group narrowly beat a rival group of British investigators led by Porter to this goal. Both researchers were awarded the Nobel Prize for the enormous contributions they made to the field of immunology.In the 1970s Edelman shifted his research to focus on questions outside of immunology: specifically, how the body—the brain in particular—develops. In 1975 he discovered substances called cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which “glue” cells together to form tissues. Edelman found that, as the brain develops, CAMs bind neurons together to form the brain's basic circuitry. His work led to the construction of a general theory of brain development and function called neural-group selection, which he explained in a trilogy of books (1987–89) for a scientific audience and in Bright Air, Brilliant Fire (1992) for laypersons.From 1981 Edelman served as director of the Neurosciences Institute, which he founded at Rockefeller University. In 1993 he moved the institute to La Jolla, California, where he also formed and chaired (1992) the neurobiology department of the Scripps Research Institute.
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EDELMAN, GERALD MAURICE — (1929– ), U.S. biochemist and immunologist, Nobel Prize laureate. Edelman was born in New York. He originally studied as a violinist but turned to biochemistry and received his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1954 and his doctorate… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Edelman,Gerald Maurice — Ed·el·man (ĕdʹl mən), Gerald Maurice. Born 1929. American biochemist. He shared a 1972 Nobel Prize for research on the chemical structure and nature of antibodies. * * * … Universalium
Edelman , Gerald Maurice — (1929–) American biochemist Born in New York City, Edelman was educated at Ursinus College, the University of Pennsylvania, and Rockefeller University, where he obtained his PhD on human immunoglobulins in 1960. He remained at Rockefeller where… … Scientists
Edelman, Gerald Maurice — (n. 1 jul. 1929, Nueva York, N.Y., EE.UU.). Bioquímico estadounidense. Obtuvo su M.D. en la Universidad de Pensilvania y el Ph.D. en la Universidad Rockefeller. Su trabajo con Rodney Porter (n. 1917–m. 1985) sobre los anticuerpos ganó el Premio… … Enciclopedia Universal
Edelman, Gerald Maurice — (b. 1929) Nobel laureate, 1972. Dr Edelman of Rockefeller University in his native New York shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology, for research on the nature of antibodies, that was of great importance in the diagnosis and… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
Edelman, Gerald Maurice — (b. 1929) American scientist. Born in New York, he taught at Rockefeller University. He shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology for research on the nature of antibodies … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
Gerald Maurice Edelman — (* 1. Juli 1929 in New York, USA) ist ein US amerikanischer Mediziner. 1972 erhielt er gemeinsam mit Rodney R. Porter den Nobelpreis für Physiologie oder Medizin für seine Entdeckungen im Bereich der chemischen Struktur von Antikörpern. Neben… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gerald Maurice Edelman — Gerald Edelman Gerald Maurice Edelman, né le 1er juillet 1929, à New York, est directeur de l Institut de neurosciences à La Jolla, en Californie. Il a reçu le Prix Nobel de médecine en 1972 (avec Rodney Porter) pour ses recherches sur les… … Wikipédia en Français
Medizinnobelpreis 1972: Gerald Maurice Edelman — Rodney Robert Porter — Die beiden Wissenschaftler erhielten den Nobelpreis für Medizin oder Physiologie »für ihre die chemische Struktur der Antikörper betreffenden« Entdeckungen. Biografien Gerald Maurice Edelman, * New York 1. 7. 1929; besuchte die Medical… … Universal-Lexikon
Edelman — Gerald Maurice … Scientists